The dilemma of DCIS

Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-2497, USA.
The Breast (Impact Factor: 2.38). 01/2008; 16 Suppl 2(2):S59-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.breast.2007.07.015
Source: PubMed


The increasingly frequent diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) presents a major clinical dilemma. Our inability to predict which DCIS will progress to invasive cancer or the time interval in which recurrent DCIS or invasive cancer will occur has resulted in treatments ranging from mastectomy to excision and observation being offered to patients. Four randomized trials have demonstrated that the use of radiation reduces the risk of local recurrence by about 50% in women with DCIS. Prospective attempts to duplicate retrospective findings that wide excision results in high rates of local control have been unsuccessful. Patient attitudes towards risks and benefits of treatment are an important component of treatment choice in the absence of predictors of biologic behavior.

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    ABSTRACT: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the fastest growing subtype of breast cancer, mainly because of the aging of our populations and improvements in diagnostic mammography and core biopsy. DCIS represents a proliferation of malignant-appearing cells that have not invaded beyond the ductal basement membrane and is a precursor for the development of invasive breast cancer (IBC). Approximately 40% of patients with DCIS treated with biopsy alone, without complete excision or further therapy, develop IBC. Most DCIS itself is harmless if it is detected and excised before it can progress to IBC, and the current approach to DCIS treatment is aimed at just that goal. Typically, it consists of multimodal treatment including segmental mastectomy followed by radiation therapy to the whole breast and then hormonal therapy or total mastectomy followed by hormonal therapy. This review discusses the state-of-the-art in DCIS detection and treatment and highlights promising new strategies in the care of DCIS patients. The data regarding the effectiveness of breast-conserving surgery versus total mastectomy, the possible avoidance of radiation therapy in some subgroups of patients, and the role of hormonal agents are reviewed. Neoadjuvant therapy and the use of trastuzumab for DCIS are currently under investigation and may be future treatment options for DCIS.
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    ABSTRACT: DCIS of the breast with coexisting invasion is commonly seen, and no consensus on any biomarker capable of discriminating this subgroup has been reached yet. We retrospectively examined the receptor status and the histological grade in Chinese DCIS patients to identify any independent predictor in order to discriminate a subgroup with coexisting invasion from pure DCIS patients. A consecutive Chinese DCIS patient cohort registered at a single institution was included for ER, PR, and HER2 status, as well as for evaluation of the histological grade. Patients with invasion foci >1cm in diameter were excluded. The HER2 gene amplification status was further examined by FISH when the IHC result was HER2 (2+). Molecular subtypes were also profiled. Age, histological grade, ER, PR, and HER2 status were included in association analyses. In total, 183 patients were included. A hundred and forty patients had pure DCIS, and 43 patients had DCIS with invasion. The luminal A subtype accounted for 49.7% of all cases, the HER2-positive subtype for 27.9%, and only 10.4% and 12.0% represented the luminal B and basal-like subtypes, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that histological Grade 2, Grade 3, and HER2-positive status were associated with DCIS with invasion, odds ratios 5.1 (P = 0.017), 5.2 (P = 0.01) and 3.34 (P = 0.001), respectively. However, only the HER2-positive status was of statistical significance in the multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjustment for other markers, odds ratio 3.8 (95%CI 1.4-10, P = 0.008). The 43 cases with invasion were further stratified into extensive or small DCIS components according to the percentage of DCIS to total tumor area using 25% as the cutoff point. Multinomial logistic regression with pure DCIS cases as reference showed that the HER2-positive status was associated only with the group showing an extensive DCIS component, odds ratio 6.2 (95%CI 1.8-21, P = 0.003), but not with the group having a small DCIS component. Our study demonstrates that HER2-positive status is an independent predictor for DCIS, with invasion presenting an extensive DCIS component, and favors the hypothesis that HER2 overexpression or gene amplification is involved in the transition from DCIS to invasive disease.
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