Role of Oviposition Preference in an Invasive Crambid Impacting Two Graminaceous Host Crops

Department of Entomology, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.
Environmental Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.3). 09/2007; 36(4):938-51. DOI: 10.1603/0046-225X(2007)36[938:ROOPIA]2.0.CO;2
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Oviposition preference studies of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), on sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and rice, Oryza sativa L., showed that drought stressed sugarcane was 1.8-fold more attractive based on egg masses/plant than well watered sugarcane. The E. loftini susceptible sugarcane cultivar LCP 85-384 was 1.6-fold more attractive than HoCP 85-845 based on numbers of eggs per egg mass. Egg masses were 9.2-fold more abundant and 2.3-fold larger on sugarcane than on rice. Rice, however, was preferred to sugarcane on a plant biomass basis. Oviposition on sugarcane occurred exclusively on dry leaf material, which increased under drought stress. Egg masses per plant increased on drought stressed sugarcane and were correlated with several foliar free amino acids essential for insect growth and development. The more resistant (based on injury) but more attractive (based on oviposition) rice cultivar XL8 had higher levels of several free amino acids than the susceptible cultivar Cocodrie. The association of host plant characteristics to oviposition preference is discussed. Projected oviposition patterns relative to sugarcane and rice production areas were estimated for Texas and Louisiana based on the availability of each host in different regions of each state. These results suggest that, where sugarcane and rice co-occur, the majority of eggs would be found on sugarcane early in the season, because of this crop's substantially greater biomass compared with rice. Abundance later in the season would also favor sugarcane; however, the abundance on rice would be greater than expected solely based on host availability, largely because of the greater preference per gram of rice plant dry weight.

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Available from: Lloyd T. (Ted) Wilson, Apr 29, 2014
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    • "Johnsongrass also exhibited more adult exit holes than vaseygrass, indicating differences in E. loftini immature performance (Showler et al., 2011). Previous studies show that E. loftini oviposition preference and immature performance are affected by host plant species and genotype, stress, and phenology (Meagher et al., 1996; Reay-Jones et al., 2007a; Showler et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: AbstractA greenhouse study compared oviposition preference and larval development duration of a stem borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on rice, Oryza sativa L. cv Cocodrie (Poaceae), and four primary non‐crop hosts of Texas Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems. Rice and two perennials, johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and vaseygrass, Paspalum urvillei Steud. (both Poaceae), were assessed at three phenological stages. Two spring annuals, brome, Bromus spec., and ryegrass, Lolium spec. (both Poaceae), were assessed at two phenological stages. Phenological stages represented the diversity of plant development stages E. loftini may encounter. Plant fresh biomass, dry biomass, and sum of tiller heights were used as measures of plant availability. Accounting for plant availability, rice was preferred over non‐crop hosts, and intermediate and older plants were preferred over young plants. Johnsongrass and vaseygrass were 32–60% as preferred as rice when considering the most preferred phenological stages of each host. Brome and ryegrass received few or no eggs, respectively. Eoreuma loftini larval development (in degree days above developmental threshold temperatures) was fastest on rice and slowest on johnsongrass and vaseygrass. Development duration was only retarded by plant stage on young rice plants. Foliar and stem free amino acid concentrations were determined to help provide insights on the mechanisms of E. loftini oviposition preference and developmental performance.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 03/2013; 146(3-3):332-346. DOI:10.1111/eea.12031 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    • "ng internodes are more susceptible to borer entry . Although more larvae became established feeding on the leaves and sheaths of mature sugarcane plants , proportionately fewer successfully entered the stalk relative to imma - ture sugarcane possibly because immature sugarcane plants have greater nutritional value than mature sug - arcane plants ( ReayÐJones et al . 2007b ) . Further , the longer exposure on mature sugarcane plants suggests that physiological factors , such as increased rind hard - ness ( Martin et al . 1975 ) , of mature sugarcane impedes stalk boring ( Van Leerdam 1986 , Ring et al . 1991 ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: A three-treatment aerial application insecticide experiment was conducted in five commercial sugarcane, Saccharum spp., fields in south Texas to evaluate the use of pheromone traps for improving chemical control of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), in 2009 and 2010. A threshold of 20 moths/trap/wk was used to initiate monitoring for larval infestations. The percentage of stalks with larvae on plant surfaces was directly related to the number of moths trapped. Reductions in borer injury and adult emergence were detected when a threshold of >5% of stalks with larvae present on plant surfaces was used to trigger insecticide applications. Novaluron provided superior control compared with beta-cyfluthrin; novaluron treated plots were associated with a 14% increase in sugar production. A greenhouse experiment investigating establishment and behavior of E. loftini larvae on two phenological stages of stalkborer resistant, HoCP 85-845, and susceptible, HoCP 00-950, sugarcane cultivars determined that more than half of larvae on HoCP 00-950 and > 25% on HoCP 85-845 tunneled inside leaf mid-ribs within 1 d of eclosion, protected therein from biological and chemical control tactics. Exposure time of larvae averaged < 1 wk for all treatments and was shortest on immature HoCP 00-950 and longest on mature HoCP 85-845. This study shows a short window of vulnerability of E. loftini larvae to insecticide applications, and demonstrates the potential utility of pheromone traps for improving insecticide intervention timing such that a single properly timed application may be all that is required.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 12/2012; 105(6):1998-2006. DOI:10.1603/EC11271 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    • "In greenhouse experiments using four cultivars at different phenological stages, female D. saccharalis chose to oviposit signiÞcantly more on reproductive age plants, regardless of cultivar. Similar observations from other stem borers of rice have been reported previously; for example, Chilotraea polychrysa (Meyrick ) and E. loftini also preferred rice plants at older stages over younger plants for oviposition (Kok 1968, Reay-Jones et al. 2007b). However, despite exhibiting a strong oviposition preference for larger, reproductive-age plants when given a choice, data from our no-choice Þeld experiment demonstrated that D. saccharalis will oviposit on younger rice plants when no choice is given. "
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    ABSTRACT: The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a pest of a variety of graminaceous crops in the southern United States, including sugarcane, maize, and rice in Louisiana. This study examined several aspects of D. saccharalis oviposition behavior on rice (Oryza sativa). The vertical distribution of egg masses on four phenological stages of rice in the field showed that D. saccharalis prefers to oviposit on the uppermost portions of rice plants, regardless of plant stage. In greenhouse choice experiments, females strongly preferred plants at the boot and panicle differentiation stages over plants at the tillering stage for oviposition. Greenhouse studies were also conducted to quantify the oviposition preference of D. saccharalis for different cultivars of. When plants were at the tillering stage, cultivars Cocodrie, Priscilla, Bengal, Cheniere, and CL161 were more preferred than cultivars Jupiter, XL723, and XP744. When plants reached the panicle initiation stage, cultivars Cocodrie, CL161, and Priscilla were more preferred than Bengal, Cheniere, Jupiter, XL723, and XP744. Females also oviposited significantly more egg masses on the adaxial surfaces of rice leaves than on the abaxial surfaces. These results will facilitate scouting and management of sugarcane borer and can be used as a foundation for the development of sugarcane borer resistant cultivars.
    Environmental Entomology 06/2012; 41(3):571-7. DOI:10.1603/EN11123 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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