Maternal obesity and risk of cesarean delivery: a meta-analysis
ABSTRACT Despite numerous studies reporting an increased risk of cesarean delivery among overweight or obese compared with normal weight women, the magnitude of the association remains uncertain. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the current literature to provide a quantitative estimate of this association. We identified studies from three sources: (i) a PubMed search of relevant articles published between January 1980 and September 2005; (ii) reference lists of publications selected from the search; and (iii) reference lists of review articles published between 2000 and 2005. We included cohort designed studies that reported obesity measures reflecting pregnancy body mass, had a normal weight comparison group, and presented data allowing a quantitative measurement of risk. We used a Bayesian random effects model to perform the meta-analysis and meta-regression. Thirty-three studies were included. The unadjusted odd ratios of a cesarean delivery were 1.46 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-1.60], 2.05 (95% CI: 1.86-2.27) and 2.89 (95% CI: 2.28-3.79) among overweight, obese and severely obese women, respectively, compared with normal weight pregnant women. The meta-regression found no evidence that these estimates were affected by selected study characteristics. Our findings provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of cesarean delivery associated with high maternal body mass.
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ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. Prevalence rates (PR) of overweight and obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 04/2015; 15(1):94. DOI:10.1186/s12884-015-0518-z · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) is considered as one of most effective determinant of delivery rout, by increase in this index, risk factor of cesarean section enhanced. Based on high prevalence of obesity in women, this study designed to assess the relationship between admission BMI and type of delivery. Methods: Five hundred and forty pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy (≥37weeks) were studied within 1 year (from June 2012 to June 2013), at Sayad Shirazi Referral Hospital, Gorgan, Iran, through a analytic cross-sectional study. BMI was calculated for each mother at the time of labor admission. Height and weight were measured, and were categorized into 3 groups according to their BMI which included of underweight and normal (BMI<25), overweight (BMI=25-29.9) and obese (BMI≥30). And in each group route of delivery (cesarean or natural delivery) were assessed. Pregnant women with the previous cesarean delivery, history of diabetes type 1, 2 or gestational diabetes, hypertension, twin pregnancy and unwilling to participate in study were excluded from study. Results: Mean of age and mean of gestational age were 25.8±5.4 years and 38.2±2.6 week, respectively. 50.6% of mothers were undergone cesarean delivery and there was a significant relationship between BMI and type of delivery (P<0.0001). For each unit increase in BMI, risk of cesarean section rose 1.08 times (CI95%=1.04-1.13, P<0.0001) and the risk of cesarean delivery in obese pregnant women was 2.8 (CI95%=1.7-4.4, P<0.0001) times higher than those with underweight and normal weight. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between maternal BMI at the time of labor admission and type of delivery and increasing of BMI is associated with increasing of cesarean section rate. Thus, keeping the BMI in normal range during pregnancy is suggested to pregnant women to reduce the pregnancy complications.Tehran University Medical Journal 03/2015; 72(12):831-837.
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ABSTRACT: Background Worldwide there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Growing evidence suggests that maternal overweight and obesity is associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity on pregnancy, labour and delivery outcomes in a cohort of women with term, singleton pregnancies cared for by family physicians in community based practices.Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported data on height and pre-pregnancy weight from term, singleton, cephalic pregnancies (n¿=¿1996) were linked to clinical data on pregnancy and birth events retrieved from electronic health records. Descriptive and bivariate regression analysis were used to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes between women categorized as normal weight, overweight and obese based on the pre-pregnancy BMI. Multinomial regression analysis stratified by type of labour onset examined the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and mode of delivery controlling for maternal age and pre-existent health conditions, parity, fertility treatments, history of C-section and pregnancy complications.ResultsThe cohort consisted of 65.8% normal weight, 23.6% overweight and 10.6% obese women. Women with increased pre-pregnancy BMI were more likely to develop pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia (OR 3.5, CI 2.0-4.6 for overweight; OR 5.3, CI 3.3-8.5 for obese) and gestational diabetes (OR 3.0, CI 1.8-5.0 for overweight; OR 6.5, CI 3.7-11.2, for obese) than normal weight women. Spontaneous onset of labour was recorded in 71.2% of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, whereas 39.3% of overweight and 49% of obese women had their labour induced. For women with spontaneous labour, pre-pregnancy BMI was not a significant risk factor for mode of delivery, controlling for covariates. Among women with induced labor, obesity was a significant risk factor for delivery by C-section (adjusted OR 2.2; CI 1.2-4.1).Conclusions Even among women with term, singleton pregnancies obtaining prenatal care in community-based settings, obese women who undergo labour induction are at increased risk of obstetrical interventions at delivery. These findings highlight the importance of tailored maternal care in pregnancy and at delivery of pregnant women with increased BMI in order to improve the outcomes and wellbeing of these women and their children.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):422. DOI:10.1186/s12884-014-0422-y · 2.15 Impact Factor