Article

Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 12.92). 02/2005; 1:197-225. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143857
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias.

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    • "Some of these plants are shown to possess anticonvulsant and sedative properties (Ngo Bum et al., 2004; Ngo Bum et al., 2009a). As it appeared, nothing is done to study their anxiolytic properties though anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders with very high co-morbidity and severe impact on quality of life (Craske and Waters, 2005; Grant et al., 2005; Kessler, 2007; Kessler et al., 2005). This study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of these plants used also in the treatment of agitations and anxiety in traditional medicine in Africa, particularly in Cameroon. "
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