Schizotypal personality: neurodevelopmental and psychosocial trajectories.
ABSTRACT Schizotypal personality research holds the promise of critically important insights into the etiology and ultimate prevention of schizophrenia. This article provides a critical overview of diagnostic, developmental, demographic, psychosocial, genetic, neurodevelopmental, psychophysiological, neurochemical, neurocognitive, brain imaging, and prevention-treatment issues pertaining to this personality disorder. It is argued that genetic and early environmental influences act in concert to alter brain structure/function throughout development, resulting in disturbances to basic cognitive and affective processes that give rise to three building blocks of schizotypy-cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized features. Two clinical subtypes are hypothesized: (a) neurodevelopmental schizotypy, which has its roots in genetic, prenatal, and early postnatal factors, is relatively stable, has genetic affinity to schizophrenia, and may benefit preferentially from pharmacological intervention, and (b) pseudoschizotypy, which is unrelated to schizophrenia, has its roots in psychosocial adversity, shows greater symptom fluctuations, and may be more responsive to psychosocial intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Alexithymia, the inability to identify and describe one’s emotional experience, is elevated in many clinical populations, and related to poor interpersonal functioning. Alexithymia is also associated with empathic deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Accordingly, a better understanding of alexithymia could elucidate the nature of social-cognitive deficits transdiagnostically. We investigated alexithymia and components of empathy in relation to schizotypal and autism spectrum traits in healthy college students. Specifically, we examined higher-order components of empathic processing that involve perspective taking and other-oriented concern, which are reduced in alexithymia.Personality and Individual Differences 04/2015; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.032 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Title: Schizotypal experiences in adolescence: Psychometric properties of Schizotypal Personality Questionnarie-Child Abstract: Schizotypal experiences are considered as the behavioral expres-sion of latent vulnerability to the schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The main goal was to analyze the psychometric quality of Schizotypal Personali-ty Questionnarie-Child (SPQ-C) in non-clinical adolescents. The final sam-ple was comprised of a total of 508 participants, 208 were male, with a mean age of 13.9 years (SD = 1.7). The results showed that schizotypal traits are common among adolescents. Hypothesized dimensional models tested by confirmatory factor analysis, indicated the three-dimensional model was the best fit indices presented in comparison with competing models. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total score was .90. The di-mensions of the SPQ-C showed significant correlations with self-reports that assessed emotional and behavioral problems and perceived stress. No items on SPQ-C showed differential item functioning by gender. The SPQ-C scores showed adequate psychometric properties. Also, schizotypy is a multidimensional construct that can be accurately assessed in adolescents in order to improve early detection strategies in the field of severe mental disorders.Anales de Psicologia 04/2015; 31(2):414-421. DOI:10.6018/analesps.31.2.167431 · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patterns of problematic volitional control in schizotypal personality disorder pertaining to goal process representation (GPR), approach and avoidance temperament, and aberrant salience have not been widely investigated in emerging adults. The present study aimed to provide preliminary evidence for the utility of examining these three motivational constructs as predictors of high versus low levels of psychometrically-defined schizotypy in a non-clinic sample. When college students with high levels of self-reported schizotypy (n=88) were compared to those with low levels (n=87) by means of logistic regression, aberrant salience, avoidant temperament, and the self-criticism component of GPR together accounted for 51% of the variance in schizotypy group assignment. Higher score on these three motivational dimensions reflected a proclivity toward higher levels of schizotypy. The current findings justify the continued exploration of goal-related constructs as useful motivational elements in psychopathology research.Psychiatry Research 01/2015; 226(1). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.01.005 · 2.68 Impact Factor