Article

Attempted and completed suicide in adolescence.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies and Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 12.92). 02/2006; 2:237-66. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.2.022305.095323
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescence, and medically serious suicide attempts occur in approximately 3% of adolescents. This review examines a number of risk factors that contribute to suicidal behavior. A prior suicide attempt is one of the best predictors of both a repeat attempt and eventual completed suicide. Depression, disruptive behavior disorders, and substance-use disorders also place adolescents at high risk for suicidal behavior, with comorbidity further increasing risk. Research on families indicates that suicidal behavior is transmitted through families. Groups at high risk for suicidal behavior include gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, incarcerated adolescents, and homeless/runaway teens. Although abnormalities in the serotonergic system have not been consistently linked to suicidal behavior, genetic and neurobiologic studies suggest that impulsive aggression may be the mechanism through which decreased serotonergic activity is related to suicidal behavior. Findings from prevention and intervention studies are modest and indicate the need for substantially more theory-driven treatment research.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Anthony Spirito, Sep 22, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
162 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Based on the interpersonal theory of suicide, pain habituation that occurs with injection substance use may raise risk for a suicide attempt. The current study tested whether injection substance use, relative to painless routes of substance administration, was related to greater risk for suicide attempts. We also assessed whether this risk was specific to suicide attempts and not suicidal ideation or suicide plans. Methods: Data on 2095 substance-using adolescents aged 12-17 who endorsed clinically significant depression symptoms and answered questions on suicidal thoughts and behavior were drawn from the 2004-2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a nationally representative household survey. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the associations between injection substance use and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts. Results: Injection substance use was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.75-5.23) but not ideation or plans. These findings were not accounted for by sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, abuse and dependence symptoms, and depression symptoms. Among ideators, injection substance use was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.58-5.06), but not plans. Among suicide planners, injection substance use was associated with suicide attempts (OR = 5.16, 95% CI = 1.88-14.17). Conclusion: Consistent with the interpersonal theory of suicide, adolescent injection drug use was associated with specific risk for suicide attempts but not ideation or planning. Hence, consideration of the manner in which adolescents use substances is important in evaluating suicide risk in this population.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.05.001 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Suicide is the leading cause of death in most armies during peace-time. The recent dramatic rise in suicides in the US Army further focuses attention on the causes of suicidal behavior in the military. METHODS: This study investigated demographic characteristics, psychological profile and stress-related risk factors associated with suicide attempts in Israelis aged 18-21 years, who served in the Army in 2009. Soldiers who attempted suicide (N=60) were compared to soldiers treated by a mental health professional, but reported no suicidal behavior (N=58), and to controls (N=50). RESULTS: Suicide attempters had lower socioeconomic status and less cognitive ability compared with treated soldiers and untreated control soldiers. Only 25% of the suicide attempters had received mental healthcare prior to the attempt. The majority of the attempts were non-lethal (86.2%), and only 5.2% used firearms. Attempters had more previous suicide attempts (37.9%) and deliberate selfharm incidents (19.3%), compared to almost no such behaviors in the other two groups. Following the suicide attempt, 77% were diagnosed with moderate to severe mental disorders, 44.8% personality disorders and 8.6% mood disorders. Attempters reported higher levels of general stress compared to their peers in the other two groups. Being away from home and obeying authority were especially more stressful in attempters. CONCLUSIONS: Young soldiers are less prone to seek mental health assistance, despite suffering from higher levels of stress. Screening is required to detect soldiers at risk for suicidal behavior and preventive intervention will require active outreach.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2013; 150(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.04.009 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This short-term prospective study examined general and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in an ethnically diverse sample of LGBT youth (N = 237, 47.7 % male). A structured psychiatric interview assessed clinical depression and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as past and prospective suicide attempts over a 1-year follow-up period (91 % retention). Participants completed questionnaires measuring general risk factors for suicide attempts, including hopelessness, impulsiveness, and perceived social support. They also completed measures of LGBT-specific suicide risk factors, including gender nonconformity, age of first same-sex attraction, and LGBT victimization. Correlation and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between predictors and suicide attempt, and to identify mediators. Of nine variables examined, seven were related to lifetime history of attempted suicide: hopelessness, depression symptoms, conduct disorder symptoms, impulsivity, victimization, age of first same-sex attraction, and low family support. Depressive symptoms and hopelessness mediated the relation between multiple risk and resilience factors and suicide attempts. Suicide attempt history was the strongest predictor of prospective suicide attempts. Participants who previously attempted suicide (31.6 % of the sample) had more than 10 times greater odds of making another attempt in the 1-year follow-up period than were those who had made no previous attempt. These results highlight the need for suicide prevention programs for LGBT youth and suggest the importance of addressing depression and hopelessness as proximal determinants and family support and victimization, which have more distal effects.
    Archives of Sexual Behavior 04/2013; 42(4):437-448. DOI:10.1007/s10508-012-0013-9 · 3.53 Impact Factor