The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer.

Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1674, USA.
Annals of Surgery (Impact Factor: 7.19). 09/2007; 246(3):466-70; discussion 470-1. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e318148563d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the prevalence of BRAF mutation among thyroid cancer histologic subtypes and determine the association of BRAF mutation with indicators of poor prognosis for papillary thyroid cancer and patient outcome.
The appropriate extent of surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and follow-up monitoring for thyroid cancer remains controversial. Advances in the molecular biology of thyroid cancer have helped to identify candidate markers of disease aggressiveness. A commonly found genetic alternation is a point mutation in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF V600E), which is primarily found in papillary thyroid cancer and is associated with more aggressive disease.
BRAF V600E mutation status was determined in 347 tumor samples from 314 patients with thyroid cancer (245 with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, 73 with follicular thyroid cancer, and 29 with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of BRAF V600E with clinicopathologic factors and patient outcome.
: The prevalence of BRAF V600E mutation was higher in conventional papillary thyroid cancer (51.0%) than in follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (24.1%) and follicular thyroid cancer (1.4%) (P < 0.0001). In patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF V600E mutation was associated with older age (P = 0.0381), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0323), distant metastasis (P = 0.045), higher TNM stage (I and II vs. III and IV, P = 0.0389), and recurrent and persistent disease (P = 0.009) with a median follow-up time of 6.0 years. Multivariate analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation [OR (95% CI) = 4.2 (1.2-14.6)] and lymph node metastasis [OR (95% CI) = 7.75 (2.1-28.5)] were independently associated with recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer. It is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer. Testing for this mutation may be useful for selecting initial therapy and for follow-up monitoring.

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    ABSTRACT: The BRAF mutation occurs commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previous investigations of its utility to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) have reported conflicting results and its role remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of the BRAF mutation and analyze its relationship to clinicopathologic risk factors and long-term outcomes in the largest, single-institution American cohort to date. BRAF mutational status was determined in 508 PTC patients using RFLP analysis. The relationships between BRAF mutation status, patient and tumor characteristics, RFS, and DSS were analyzed. The BRAF mutation was present in 67% of patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of the mutation predicted only for capsular invasion (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), cervical lymph node involvement (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), and classic papillary histology (HR, 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.9). There was no significant relationship between the BRAF mutation and RFS or DSS, an observation that was consistent across univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses. This is the most extensive study to date in the United States to demonstrate that BRAF mutation is of no predictive value for recurrence or survival in PTC. We found correlations of BRAF status and several clinicopathologic characteristics of high-risk disease, but limited evidence that the mutation correlates with more extensive or aggressive disease. This analysis suggests that BRAF is minimally prognostic in PTC. However, prevalence of the BRAF mutation is 70% in the general population, providing the opportunity for targeted therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Cancer Medicine 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/cam4.417
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    ABSTRACT: The new finding of the heterogeneous distribution of BRAF(V600E) mutation in primary papillary thyroid carcinoma suggested the percentage of BRAF(V600E) alleles should be taken into consideration when evaluating its association with clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to detect both the presence and the percentage of BRAF(V600E) alleles in fine-needle aspiration biopsy samples and to assess its association with clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a Chinese population.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the association of the BRAFV600E mutation with sonographic features and clinicopathologic characteristics in a large population with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic features, clinicopathologic characteristics, and presence of the BRAFV600E mutation in 688 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for conventional PTC between January and July 2010 at a single institution. The incidence of the BRAFV600E mutation was calculated. The sonographic features and clinicopathologic characteristics were compared between BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative patients. BRAF-positive patients were subdivided into those with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (the PTMC group) and those with PTC larger than 10 mm (the PTC>10 mm group), and their sonographic features were compared. Results The BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 69.2% of patients (476 of 688). Sonographic features were not significantly different between BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative PTC, nor between PTMC and PTC>10 mm groups. The BRAFV600E mutation was associated with male sex (P = 0.028), large tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, central and lateral lymph node metastasis, and advanced tumor stage (P<0.0001). Conclusion The BRAFV600E mutation was significantly associated with several poor clinicopathologic characteristics, but was not associated with sonographic features, regardless of tumor size. We recommend that patients with a thyroid nodule with any suspicious sonographic feature undergo preoperative BRAFV600E testing for risk stratification and to guide the initial surgical approach in PTC.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e110868. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110868 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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