Phosphorylation-dependent antagonism of sumoylation derepresses progesterone receptor action in breast cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PRs) mediate proliferation during breast development and contribute to breast cancer progression, in part by synergizing with peptide growth factors. We have previously identified PR Ser294 as a key site for direct regulation of PR location, activity, and turnover in response to phosphorylation events. Herein, we sought to better understand how hormonal cross talk alters PR function. We demonstrate that progestins (R5020 and RU486) induce rapid (15 min) sumoylation of PR Lys388; sumoylation represses PR transcriptional activity on selected progesterone response element-driven and endogenous promoters and retards ligand-induced PR down-regulation. Consistent with this finding, we show that stabilized but weakly active phospho-mutant S294A PRs are heavily sumoylated. Conversely, desumoylated PR, created by mutation of PR Lys388 (K388R) or by overexpression of sentrin (SUMO)-specific protease desumoylating enzymes, are hypersensitive to low progestin concentrations. Combination of K388R and S294A mutations (KRSA double-mutant PR) rescues both transcription and turnover of impaired phospho-mutant (S294A) receptors. Notably, phosphorylation events antagonize PR-B but not PR-A sumoylation. Treatment of cells with epidermal growth factor or transient expression of activated mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase kinase or cyclin-dependent protein kinase 2 induces PR-B Ser294 phosphorylation and blocks PR-B sumoylation, thereby derepressing receptor activity; PR-A is resistant to these events. Modulation of reversible PR sumoylation in response to diverse hormonal signals provides a mechanism for rapid isoform-specific changes in hormone responsiveness. In the context of elevated protein kinase activities, such as during mammary gland development or breast cancer progression, phosphorylated PR-B may be undersumoylated, transcriptionally hyperactive, and unstable/undetectable.
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ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER(+)) breast cancers comprise the majority of human breast cancers, but molecular mechanisms underlying this subtype of breast cancers remain poorly understood. Here, we show that ER(+) mammary luminal tumors arising in Tip30(-/-)MMTV-Neu mice exhibited increased enrichment of luminal progenitor gene signature. Deletion of the Tip30 gene increased proportion of mammary stem and progenitor cell populations, and raised susceptibility to ER(+) mammary luminal tumors in female Balb/c mice. Moreover, Tip30(-/-) luminal progenitors displayed increases in propensity to differentiate to mature ER(+) luminal cells and FoxA1 expression. Knockdown of FoxA1 expression in Tip30(-/-) progenitors by shRNA specific for FoxA1 reduced their differentiation toward ER(+) mature luminal cells. Taken together, our results suggest that TIP30 is a key regulator for maintaining ER(+) and ER(-)luminal pools in the mammary luminal lineage, and loss of it promotes expansion of ER(+) luminal progenitors and mature cells and ER(+) mammary tumorigenesis.Cell Death & Disease 05/2014; 5:e1242. · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are genetically diverse, aggressive sarcomas that occur sporadically or in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome. Reduced TP53 gene expression and amplification/overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene occur in MPNST formation. We focused on determining the cooperativity between reduced TP53 expression and EGFR overexpression for Schwann cell transformation in vitro (immortalized human Schwann cells) and MPNST formation in vivo (transgenic mice). Human gene copy number alteration data, microarray expression data, and TMA analysis indicate that TP53 haploinsufficiency and increased EGFR expression co-occur in human MPNST samples. Concurrent modulation of EGFR and TP53 expression in HSC1λ cells significantly increased proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Transgenic mice heterozygous for a Trp53-null allele and overexpressing EGFR in Schwann cells had a significant increase in neurofibroma and grade 3 PNST (MPNST) formation compared with single transgenic controls. Histological analysis of tumors identified a significant increase in pAkt expression in grade 3 PNSTs compared with neurofibromas. Array comparative genome hybridization analysis of grade 3 PNSTs identified recurrent focal regions of chromosomal gains with significant enrichment in genes involved in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 signaling. Collectively, altered p53 expression cooperates with overexpression of EGFR in Schwann cells to enhance in vitro oncogenic properties and tumorigenesis and progression in vivo.American Journal Of Pathology 05/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progesterone receptor (PR) and its co-activators are direct targets of activated cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) in response to peptide growth factors, progesterone, and deregulation of cell cycle inhibitors. Herein, using the T47D breast cancer model, we probed mechanisms of cell cycle-dependent PR action. In the absence of exogenous progestin, PR is specifically phosphorylated during the G2/M phase. Accordingly, numerous PR target genes are cell cycle regulated, including HSPB8, a heat-shock protein whose high expression is associated with tamoxifen-resistance. Progestin-induced HSPB8 expression required cyclin D1 and was insensitive to anti-estrogens, but blocked by anti-progestins or inhibition of specificity factor 1 (SP1). HSPB8 expression increased with or without ligand when cells were G2/M synchronized or contained high levels of cyclin D1. Knock-down of PR abrogated ligand-independent HSPB8 expression in synchronized cells. Notably, PR and cyclin D1 co-purified in whole cell lysates of transiently transfected COS-1 cells and in PR-positive T47D breast cancer cells expressing endogenous cyclin D1. PR, cyclin D1, and SP1 were recruited to the HSPB8 promoter in progestin-treated T47D breast cancer cells. Mutation of PR Ser345 to Ala (S345A) or inhibition of CDK2 activity using roscovitine disrupted PR/cyclin D1 interactions with DNA and blocked HSPB8 mRNA expression. Interaction of phosphorylated PRs with SP1 and cyclin D1 provides a mechanism for targeting transcriptionally active PRs to selected gene promoters relevant to breast cancer progression. Understanding the functional linkage between PR and cell cycle regulatory proteins will provide keys to targeting novel PR/cyclin D1 cross-talk in both hormone-responsive and HSPB8-high refractory disease.Molecular Endocrinology 02/2014; 28(4):me20131196. · 4.20 Impact Factor