Long- and short-time immunological memory in different strains of mice given nasally an adjuvant-combined nasal influenza vaccine.
ABSTRACT Immunological memory induced by nasal immunization with adjuvant-combined influenza vaccine was analyzed in different ages and strains of mice. The memory activities were assessed by secondary nasal-wash IgA and serum IgG antibody (Ab) responses and protection against challenge infection with a lethal dose of influenza virus. Mice were primed with 0.1 microg of vaccine and boosted with 0.1 or 1.0 microg vaccine 1 (short-term memory)- or 17 (long-term memory)-months later. Influenza-specific short-term memory responses in young adult BALB/c mice (2-month-old) were significantly higher than those of long-term memory activities in mice boosted at 19 months of age. However, those influenza-specific long-term memory responses provided protective immunity against influenza virus challenge and were higher than short-term memory in aged mice primed at 18-month-old and boosted 1 month later. These results show that the age at which initial nasal immunization is given is critically important in order to induce protective immunity in aged mice. Similar findings were noted in the C3H mouse strain; however, C57BL/6 mice failed to induce influenza-specific immune responses in both young adult and aged mice. These results indicate that low doses of cholera toxin B subunit (supplemented with 0.2% of hole toxin) combined nasal vaccine may required further improvement in order to provide protective immunity in human use.
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ABSTRACT: Influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that remains a major health problem world-wide. Needle and syringe are still the primary delivery devices, and injection of liquid vaccine into the muscle is still the primary route of immunization. Vaccines could be more convenient and effective if they were delivered by the mucosal route. Elicitation of systemic and mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses, such as pathogen neutralizing antibodies (including mucosal IgA at the site of pathogen entry) and CD4(+) T-helper cells (especially the Th17 subset), have a critical role in vaccine-mediated protection. In the current study, a sublingual subunit influenza vaccine formulated with or without mucosal adjuvant was evaluated for systemic and mucosal immunogenicity and compared to intranasal and intramuscular vaccination. Sublingual administration of adjuvanted influenza vaccine elicited comparable antibody titers to those elicited by intramuscular immunization with conventional influenza vaccine. Furthermore, influenza-specific Th17 cells or neutralizing mucosal IgA were detected exclusively after mucosal immunization.Vaccine 01/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The power of cholera toxin (CT) as an effective mucosal adjuvant is well established. Because of the high toxicity of CT, its clinical use is unlikely. Therefore, the need to identify effective and non toxic mucosal adjuvants for human use is important. For this purpose, CT is largely used as a reference molecule for testing the efficacy of new candidate adjuvants in animal models. Here, we evaluated the kinetics and the localization of antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses elicited by intranasal immunization with tetanus toxoid antigen in the presence of CT. We show that an antigen-specific cellular immune response localized in the mediastinal lymph nodes can be observed already 1 week after the first immunization. The induction of an appreciable titer of an antibody-specific immune response was assessed after two immunizations. Therefore, we suggest that the efficacy of new candidate mucosal adjuvants can be tested by evaluating the cellular immune response in the mediastinal lymph nodes at early stages of immunization.Methods 06/2009; 49(4):334-9. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Influenza is one of the most common infectious diseases afflicting humans, particularly the elderly. The murine model has been widely employed for investigation of immunity to influenza virus infection. In this paper, we review the recent advances in understanding the diminished CD8 T cell immune response to influenza virus infection in aged mice. Possible mechanisms of impaired CD8 T cell responses with aging are addressed, including: (1) the role of dendritic cells (DCs); (2) the effect of age-associated changes in the T cell repertoire; and (3) the interactions with CD4 T cells, including T regulatory (Treg) cells and CD4 T helper cells. The aged murine model of the CD8 T cell response to influenza virus is helping to elucidate the mechanisms of immunosenescence which can lead to therapeutic improvements in the primary CD8 T cell response to new infections, as well as the development of new strategies for immunization to prevent influenza in the elderly.Ageing research reviews 02/2011; 10(4):422-7. · 5.62 Impact Factor