Long- and short-time immunological memory in different strains of mice given nasally an adjuvant-combined nasal influenza vaccine.
ABSTRACT Immunological memory induced by nasal immunization with adjuvant-combined influenza vaccine was analyzed in different ages and strains of mice. The memory activities were assessed by secondary nasal-wash IgA and serum IgG antibody (Ab) responses and protection against challenge infection with a lethal dose of influenza virus. Mice were primed with 0.1 microg of vaccine and boosted with 0.1 or 1.0 microg vaccine 1 (short-term memory)- or 17 (long-term memory)-months later. Influenza-specific short-term memory responses in young adult BALB/c mice (2-month-old) were significantly higher than those of long-term memory activities in mice boosted at 19 months of age. However, those influenza-specific long-term memory responses provided protective immunity against influenza virus challenge and were higher than short-term memory in aged mice primed at 18-month-old and boosted 1 month later. These results show that the age at which initial nasal immunization is given is critically important in order to induce protective immunity in aged mice. Similar findings were noted in the C3H mouse strain; however, C57BL/6 mice failed to induce influenza-specific immune responses in both young adult and aged mice. These results indicate that low doses of cholera toxin B subunit (supplemented with 0.2% of hole toxin) combined nasal vaccine may required further improvement in order to provide protective immunity in human use.
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ABSTRACT: Influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that remains a major health problem world-wide. Needle and syringe are still the primary delivery devices, and injection of liquid vaccine into the muscle is still the primary route of immunization. Vaccines could be more convenient and effective if they were delivered by the mucosal route. Elicitation of systemic and mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses, such as pathogen neutralizing antibodies (including mucosal IgA at the site of pathogen entry) and CD4(+) T-helper cells (especially the Th17 subset), have a critical role in vaccine-mediated protection. In the current study, a sublingual subunit influenza vaccine formulated with or without mucosal adjuvant was evaluated for systemic and mucosal immunogenicity and compared to intranasal and intramuscular vaccination. Sublingual administration of adjuvanted influenza vaccine elicited comparable antibody titers to those elicited by intramuscular immunization with conventional influenza vaccine. Furthermore, influenza-specific Th17 cells or neutralizing mucosal IgA were detected exclusively after mucosal immunization.Vaccine 01/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY LACK (Leishmania analogue of the receptor kinase C) is a conserved protein in the protozoan of the genus Leishmania, which is associated with the immunopathogenesis and susceptibility of BALB/c mice to Leishmania major infection. We previously demonstrated that intranasal immunization with a plasmid DNA encoding the p36/LACK leishmanial antigen (pCI-neo-LACK) followed by challenge 7 days after a booster dose effectively protects BALB/c mice against both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study, the correlation between systemic mRNA expression after nasal DNA uptake, and the duration of protective immunity was addressed. LACK mRNA transcripts were detected in the spleen, brain, cervical lymph nodes and popliteal lymph nodes as early as 7 days, lasting 3 months after vaccination with pCI-neo-LACK. The kinetics of transcript expression correlated with enhanced cutaneous hypersensitivity against parasite antigens. Leishmania chagasi infection at 7 days or 3 months, but not 6 months after vaccination resulted in significantly lower parasite loads as compared with non-vaccinated controls. Protection also correlated with enhanced spleen cell responsiveness to parasite antigens leading to increased IFN- γ and IL-4 and decreased IL-10 production. Together, these data demonstrate that the protection conferred by the intranasal DNA vaccine lasts at least 3 months and is associated with expression of vaccine mRNA in peripheral organs.Parasitology 07/2012; 139(12):1562-9. · 2.36 Impact Factor