Biochemical parameters of plants as indicators of air pollution

Ecology and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun-248 006, India.
Journal of Environmental Biology (Impact Factor: 0.56). 02/2007; 28(1):127-32.
Source: PubMed


In the present study species like Mangifera indica, Linn., Cassia fistula, Linn., and Eucalyptus hybrid were exposed to different air pollution load for short duration (active biomonitoring). Variation in biochemical parameters like chlorophyll, protein, soluble sugar free amino acid, ascorbic acid, nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in the leaves were found to be pollution load dependent. These variations can be used as indicators of air pollution for early diagnosis of stress or as a marker for physiological damage to trees prior to the onset of visible injury symptoms. Just by analyzing these biochemical indicators air quality can also be assessed.

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Available from: Mukesh Kumaar Gautam, Jun 18, 2014
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    • "Plants are nonmotile and cannot avoid the action of adverse environmental factors; therefore, various plant parameters are used in the bioindication for an estimation of environmental pollution. Photosynthetic pigment content (Rabe and Kreeb 1980; Carreras et al.1996; Tripathi and Gautam 2007; Hassan et al. 2013), levels of total protein (Tripathi and Gautam 2007; Sing et al. 2013) and thiol groups (Ding et al. 1994), rate of lipid peroxidation (Carreras et al.1996; Rhoden et al. 2008; Hassan et al. 2013), leaf fluctuating asymmetry (Leung et al. 2000; Zakharov et al. 2000), phenological parameters (Sanz et al. 2011), and seed production (Savinov 1998) of various plant species are widely used or recommended for these purposes . However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences of these indexes have been insufficiently explored under different environmental pollution intensity in a wide range of values. "
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    ABSTRACT: Various plant indexes are used or recommended for bioindication. However, the nonmonotonic dose-response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indexes are insufficiently explored upon exposure to pollution. We studied the dependences of these Betula pendula indexes on the intensity of motor traffic pollution. Regression analysis did not reveal any dependence of chlorophyll and carotenoid content on traffic intensity (in 2008 and 2010-2013). Lipid peroxidation rate had different versions of paradoxical effects in 2008 and 2010 to 2012 and increased in comparison with control under an increase in pollution level in 2013. In 2010 to 2012, all dose-response dependences for total protein and thiol group content were biphasic and multiphasic paradoxical effects. In 2013, an increase in traffic intensity induced a linear reduction in protein content and an increase in thiol group level in comparison with the control. In most cases, the studied phenological indexes and seed production decreased monotonically in comparison with the control following an increase in traffic intensity. Only in 2010 and 2013, share of fallen leaves had hormesis and paradoxical effect accordingly. Fluctuating asymmetry had a paradoxical effect and hormesis in 2008 and 2012, accordingly, and increased in comparison with the control under an increase in the level of pollution in 2010 to 2011.
    Dose-Response 04/2015; 13(2). DOI:10.1177/1559325815588508 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Once the pollutants are released into the atmosphere, only the plants are the hope, which can mop up the pollutants by adsorbing and metabolising them from the atmosphere. Therefore, the role of plants, in the air pollution abatement, have been increasingly recognised in recent years (Woo and Je 2006; Tripathi and Gautam 2006; Hoque et al. 2007; Joshi and Swami 2009; Rai 2011a, b, 2013). In urban environment, tree play an important role in improving air quality by taking up gases and particles (Horaginamani and Ravichandran 2010; Woo and Je 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bio monitoring studies are extremely relevant in the field of air pollution science in relation to urban ecosystem restoration. The present study was designed in order to assess the dust capturing efficiency and air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of 12 selected tree species growing along the road side at control and polluted site of Aizawl, Mizoram, northeast India. Highest dust deposition was found in Ficus benghalensis (1.02 mg cm−2) and lowest in Bauhinia variegate (0.54 mg cm−2) at polluted site. APTI of 12 plant species were evaluated by analyzing four important biochemical parameters such as ascorbic acid content, relative water content, leaf extract pH and total leaf chlorophyll. High values of APTI were recorded in F. benghalensis (19.48) and least for Artocarpus heterophyllus (8.11) at control site. The anticipated performance index (API) was calculated for different species by combining the resultant APTI values with some relevant biological and socioeconomic characters. According to API, F. bengalensis, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava, Ficus religiosa, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Lagerstroemia speciosa were evaluated as the best suited variety for plantation along the roadside of the polluted area.
    Air Quality Atmosphere & Health 03/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1007/s11869-013-0217-8 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, may alter plant growth and production, without physical damage to the plant (Kumar and Thambavani, 2012). It is also the fact plants provide a vast leaf area for impingement, assimilation and accumulation of air pollutants diminish the pollutant level in the air environment (Warren, 1973; Shannigrahi et al., 2004), thus can be used as bioindicator of air pollution (Tripathi and Gautam, 2007; Lalitha et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Brick manufacturing is the fastest-growing industrial sector in many countries (like china, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan) and among the top three sectors, along with vehicle exhaust and resuspended road dust, contributing to the air pollution and health problems in Dhaka (Bangladesh). The total emissions from the brick manufacturing in the Greater Dhaka region, to produce 3.5 billion bricks per year has been estimated about 23,300 tons of particulate matter having aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM 2.5), 15,500 tons of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), 302,000 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), 6,000 tons of black carbon (BC) and 1.8 million tons of carbon dioxide (CO 2) . Emission of individual air pollutant from brick kilns varied significantly during a firing batch (seven days) and between kilns. Average emission factors per 1,000 bricks were 6.35 to 12.3 kg of CO, 0.52 to 5.9 kg of SO 2 and 0.64 to 1.4 kg of particulate matter (PM). Presently sulphur dioxide (SO 2), oxides of nitrogen (NO x) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) are the main issue pertaining to air pollution problems in developing countries, where it contributes both to urban pollution and to regional acid depositions. Among man-made sources, coal combustion in stationary sources accounts for 74%, industries 22% and transportation 2% of the total oxides of sulphur (SO x) . and it is considered that SO 2 is the chief emission in brick production. On an international basis, 75 to 85% of SO 2 emissions are the result of fossil fuel burning. It is predictable that just about 93% of the global SO 2 emissions are emitted in the northern hemisphere. It has been revealed that biomass is responsible for the emission of both trace and non trace gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) from traditional brick industries and lots of toxic fumes containing suspended particulate matters rich in carbon particles and high concentration of CO and SO x get produced. Studies have shown the average value of particulate matter of size less than ten microns and total suspend particles for the pre-operation time of brick kilns was 0.029 and 0.033 mg/m³, respectively whereas, it reached 0.050 and 0.056 mg/m³, respectively during the brick kiln operation time. Similarly, recent studies on brick kilns in District Budgam of Kashmir valley (India) have shown some major negative impacts on the environment in respect of air quality, human health and vegetation in particular.
    12/2013; 6(1):1-11. DOI:10.5897/JENE2013.0423
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