Usefulness of coronary flow reserve immediately after primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction in predicting long-term adverse cardiac events.
ABSTRACT Coronary flow reserve (CFR) evaluated immediately after reperfusion is thought to reflect the degree of microvascular injury and predict left ventricular (LV) functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. It was hypothesized that CFR immediately after reperfusion would be predictive of the occurrence of long-term adverse cardiac events. Using a Doppler guidewire, CFR was evaluated immediately after primary coronary angioplasty in 118 consecutive patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarctions. Adverse cardiac events combining cardiac death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure were recorded during an average follow-up period of 62 +/- 32 months. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, CFR </=1.3 was the best predictor of future cardiac events (sensitivity 86%, specificity 70%). Accordingly, patients were divided into 2 groups: those with CFR </=1.3 (n = 50) and those with CFR >1.3 (n = 68). Patients with CFR </=1.3 had significantly higher peak creatine kinase concentrations, lower LV ejection fractions, and higher LV volumes compared with patients with CFR >1.3. CFR was significantly correlated with the LV ejection fraction at 4 weeks (r = 0.50, p <0.0001) and LV end-diastolic volume at 4 weeks (r = -0.43, p <0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a higher incidence of adverse cardiac events in patients with CFR </=1.3 (p <0.0001). In conclusion, CFR evaluated immediately after primary coronary angioplasty is a strong predictor of long-term adverse cardiac events after reperfused acute myocardial infarction.
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ABSTRACT: Transluminal coronary angioplasty can serve as a model for controlled coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion which enables assessment of short-term changes in collateral vessel filling in patients with severe atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. In 16 patients with isolated left anterior descending or right coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 75% stenosis) and normal left ventricular function, collateral filling to the artery being dilated was visualized by contrast injection into the contralateral artery using a second arterial catheter. During balloon inflation, contralateral dye injection was performed as soon as the patient developed angina or ST-T changes or at 90 seconds in those patients without symptoms or signs of ischemia. Grades of collateral filling from the contralateral vessel were: 0 = none; 1 = filling of side branches of the artery to be dilated via collateral channels without visualization of the epicardial segment; 2 = partial filling of the epicardial segment via collateral channels; 3 = complete filling of the epicardial segment of the artery being dilated via collateral channels. At baseline angiography, nine patients had grade 0 collateral filling, seven had grade 1 and none had grade 2 or 3. During coronary occlusion by balloon inflation, collateral filling improved by one grade in eight patients, two grades in five patients, three grades in two patients and remained the same in one patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/1985; 5(3):587-92. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. The goal of this study was to demonstrate myocardial infarct extension during reperfusion within the same animal.Background. Whether myocardial reperfusion can result in the extension of myocardial necrosis remains controversial. The transformation of reversibly injured myocytes into irreversibly damaged cells after reperfusion has been difficult to demonstrate pathologically.Methods. New Zealand White rabbits (Group I, n = 10) were subjected to 30 min of coronary artery occlusion and 180 min of reperfusion. Horseradish peroxidase, a tracer protein that permeates the sarcolemma of irreversibly injured myocytes, was used to quantitate myocyte necrosis at the beginning of reperfusion. Within the same heart, infarct size was measured after 180 min of reperfusion by triphenyttetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. In separate experiments to demonstrate the validity of the model, rabbits were subjected to 30 min of coronary occlusion, followed by intravenous infusion of horseradish peroxidase and rapid induction of death (Group II) or 30 min of occlusion, 180 min of reperfusion with horseradish peroxidase administered after 180 min of reperfusion and TTC staining after induced death (Group III).Results. In Group I, infarct size at the onset of reperfusion, delineated by horseradish peroxidase, measured 45.3 ± 2.8% of the area of risk and was significantly less than TTC-delineated infarct size after 189 min of re perfusion (59.8 ± 33%, p = 0.0002). By electron microscopy, border areas within the ischemic bed demonstrated irreversibly injured horseradish peroxidasepositive myocytes adjacent to irreversibly injured horseradish peroxidase-negative myocytes, suggesting that farther cell death occurred during reperfusion. In Group II, infarcts delineated by horseradish peroxidase after 30 min of coronary occlusion were similar in size to infarcts measured by this tracer in Group I. In Group III, infarcts delineated by horseradish peroxidase at 180 min of reperfusion were similar in size to infarcts measured by TTC and similar to TTC-delineated infarcts measured at 180 min of reperfusion in Group I.Conclusions. These results provide evidence that there is a subset of myocytes in border areas within the ischemic region that are viable at the beginning of reperfusion but subsequently progress to irreversible injury during the reperfusion period.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/1993; · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In animal models, oxygen-derived free radicals have been found to be important mediators of reperfusion injury to ischemic but viable myocardium. However, in humans, there is no direct evidence of free radical production after the restoration of coronary artery patency in acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to quantitate and assess the time course of free radical production in coronary venous outflow in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing successful recanalization of the infarct-related artery by primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Primary PTCA was performed in 17 patients with acute myocardial infarction of < 6 hours duration. Direct free radical production was assessed by coronary venous effluent blood sampling before PTCA and at timed intervals up to 24 hours (or 48 hours in 6 patients) after recanalization. All samples were added to the spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl N-tert butyl nitrone and analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Vessel patency resulted in a sharp increase in free radical signal. Relative to the level before PTCA, the changes reached statistical significance after only 15 minutes (p < 0.05). Peak signals were observed between 1 1/2 and 3 1/2 hours (p < 0.001), then declined up to 5 hours. A second increase in signal level was detected between 18 and 24 hours despite no angiographic evidence of reocclusion. A gradual decline was observed after 24 hours. These findings provide the first direct and quantitative evidence of free radical production in the immediate postrecanalization phase after thrombotic occlusion of a major coronary artery in humans.The American Journal of Cardiology 02/1996; 77(2):122-7. · 3.21 Impact Factor