Impact of ramipril on the incidence of atrial fibrillation: Results of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study
ABSTRACT We evaluated the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ramipril on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients enrolled in the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation trial.
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia affecting the general population and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective secondary analyses of some of the large trials of ACE inhibitors have suggested that ACE inhibitors may prevent AF.
We evaluated the occurrence of AF by reviewing the electrocardiogram tracings at entry, at 2 years, and at the end of the study, as well as hospitalizations among 8335 high-risk participants from the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study, > or = 55 years, without known heart failure or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and followed for a median period of 4.5 years. We compared the impact of ramipril and matched placebo on occurrence of AF. The results were compared to similar trials.
Over the 4.5 years follow-up, the incidence of new AF was low (2.1%, 177/8335), and ramipril did not significantly reduce the rate of new AF compared with placebo (86/4291 [2.0%] vs 91/4044 [2.2%]) with an odds ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.24; P = .57). These results added to the previous ACE inhibitor trials (excluding trials in patients with LV dysfunction) showed no significant reduction in new AF among patients treated with these agents (1088/20,930 [5.0%] vs 1343/22,878 [5.9%]; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.05).
Although the incidence of AF was low, treatment with ramipril in this population without known LV systolic dysfunction did not significantly reduce this dysrhythmia.
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ABSTRACT: Over the past few decades, the mainstay of hypertension management has been pharmacological therapy; however, there is now a growing body of evidence that drug-resistant hypertension can be managed effectively by renal artery ablation. Several studies have documented the feasibility and safety of this treatment, although data regarding long-term outcomes are still emerging. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension commonly coexist, and recent work has demonstrated improved outcomes from catheter ablation of AF with concomitant renal artery denervation at little extra cost in terms of time and resource. The aim of this review is to explore the link between hypertension and AF, the synergistic effect of renal artery ablation on AF ablation, explain how this may work and address unanswered questions.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 15 August 2013; doi:10.1038/jhh.2013.75.Journal of human hypertension 08/2013; DOI:10.1038/jhh.2013.75 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the associations between antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, diuretics, or calcium-antagonists, and risk of atrial fibrillation. We examined these associations using the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2010. Excluding medication used in atrial fibrillation, we matched individuals on ACEi monotherapy 1:1 with individuals on β-blocker (n = 48 658), diuretic (n = 69 630), calcium-antagonist (n = 57 646), and ARB monotherapy (n = 20 158). Likewise, individuals on ARB monotherapy were matched 1:1 with individuals on β-blocker (n = 20 566), diuretic (n = 20 832), calcium-antagonist (n = 20 232), and ACEi monotherapy (n = 20 158). All were free of atrial fibrillation and of predisposing diseases like heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hyperthyroidism at baseline and none received any other antihypertensive medication. We studied risk of atrial fibrillation, and used risk of stroke, influenced by lowering blood pressure rather than renin-angiotensin system blockade per se, as an indicator of the importance of blood pressure lowering per se. Hazard ratios of atrial fibrillation for ACEi and ARB monotherapy were 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10-0.15) and 0.10 (0.07-0.14) compared with β-blocker, 0.51 (0.44-0.59) and 0.43 (0.32-0.58) compared with diuretic, and 0.97 (0.81-1.16) and 0.78 (0.56-1.08) compared with calcium-antagonist monotherapy. Risk of stroke did not differ among the five antihypertensive medications. Use of ACEis and ARBs compared with β-blockers and diuretics associates with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation, but not stroke, within the limitations of a retrospective study reporting associations. This suggests that controlling activation of the renin-angiotensin system in addition to controlling blood pressure is associated with a reduced risk of atrial fibrillation.European Heart Journal 12/2013; 35(18). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht507 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cardiac arrhythmia associated with significant morbidity and mortality, affecting more than 3 million people in the United States and 1-2% of the population worldwide. Its estimated prevalence is expected to double within the next 50 years. During the past decade, there have been significant advances in the treatment of AF. Studies have demonstrated that a rate control strategy, with a target resting heart rate between 80 and 100 beats/minute, is recommended over rhythm control in the vast majority of patients. The CHA2 DS2 ≥ (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 65 yrs, diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, female gender) scoring system is a potentially useful stroke risk stratification tool that incorporates additional risk factors to the commonly used CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke transient ischemic attack) scoring tool. Similarly, a convenient scheme, termed HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly), to assess bleeding risk has emerged that may be useful in select patients. Furthermore, new antithrombotic strategies have been developed as potential alternatives to warfarin, including dual-antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and the development of new oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Vernakalant has emerged as another potential option for pharmacologic conversion of AF, whereas recent trials have better defined the role of dronedarone in the maintenance of sinus rhythm. Finally, catheter ablation represents another alternative to manage AF, whereas upstream therapy with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, statins, and polyunsaturated fatty acids could potentially prevent the occurrence of AF. Despite substantial progress in the management of AF, significant uncertainty surrounds the optimal treatment of this condition.Pharmacotherapy 04/2013; 33(4):422-46. DOI:10.1002/phar.1217 · 2.20 Impact Factor