Parental versus child reporting of fruit and vegetable consumption
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to (1) compare parental and child recording of children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, including family-related factors, and (2) investigate the potential differences in the relation of children's and parents' perceptions of family-related factors.
Children were recruited from Dutch seventh and eighth grade classrooms. Each child and one of their parents completed parallel questionnaires. A total of 371 matched child-parent surveys were included in the analyses. To compare parental and child reports of consumption and family-related factors regarding F&V intake several techniques were used such as paired sample t-test, chi-square tests, Pearson's correlations and Cohens's kappa as measurement of agreement. To investigate potential differences between the parent's and children's perceptions of family-related factors, linear regression analyses were conducted.
The results indicated weak agreement for F&V consumption (Cohen's kappa coefficients of .31 and .20, respectively) but no differences in mean consumption of fruit at the group level. Regarding the family-environmental factors related to fruit consumption, significant differences were found between the perceptions of subjective norm, and the availability and accessibility of fruit. Perceptions of subjective norm, parental modelling and exposure regarding vegetable consumption were also viewed differently by the two groups. The family-environmental factors reported by the children were similarly associated with F&V consumption compared to those reported by their respective parents. However, parents rated these factors more favourably than their children did.
The results indicated a low level of agreement between parental and child reporting of F&V intake and their assessment of family-environmental factors on individual level. This has important implications for the development and evaluation of interventions and we recommend that researchers clearly indicate which source of information they use in their studies as it remains unclear which source is more valid.However, when the effects of interventions are studied at the group level, our results suggest that it makes no difference whether children or parents report the child's fruit consumption. The same holds for determinant studies; both parental and child reports can be used. However, perceptions of these factors differ significantly.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Nanne de Vries, Jun 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: To investigate if positive changes or maintenance high scores on potential behavioral determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are associated with increased or maintenance favorable levels of F&V intake frequency in the same time lapse or later in time. Data were used from two intervention studies in the Netherlands: the Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study. A design with baseline and two follow-up measurements. 344 children of the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project and 258 children of the Pro Children Study completed questionnaires, including questions on general demographics, usual F&V intake frequency, important potential determinants of F&V intake, such as taste preferences of F&V, availability of F&V, knowledge of recommended intake levels of F&V, self-efficacy for eating F&V, and parental influences for eating F&V. Three different associations between changes in determinants of F&V intake and changes in F&V intake frequency were assessed by multilevel multinomial regression analyses. Results of one of the investigated associations indicated that in both studies behavior change (increase in F&V intake frequency) was preceded by changes in the following variables; liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Furthermore, changes in F&V intake frequency preceded changes in liking of F&V later in time. In accordance with behavior change theories, the present study provides some evidence that behavior change was preceded by changes in certain potential determinants of F&V intake. Potential determinants of F&V intake that appear to be important to induce behavior change were liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Some evidence was also found that behavior changes may precede changes in presumed determinants of F&V intake, such as liking of F&V.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 04/2008; 5:21. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-5-21 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term effects of the Schoolgruiten Project, a Dutch primary school-based intervention providing free fruit and vegetables (F&V). In addition, we assessed whether children's appreciation of the project mediated these intervention effects. Participating schoolchildren (mean age 9.9 years at baseline) and their parents completed parallel questionnaires at baseline, at 1-year and at 2-year follow-up, including questions on usual F&V intake of the child, potential behavioural determinants, their appreciation of the project and general demographics. Primary outcomes were usual F&V intakes as assessed by parent and child self-reported food frequency measures. Secondary outcome measures were taste preference, knowledge of daily recommendations, availability and accessibility for fruit intake. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to assess differences at second follow-up adjusted for baseline values between control and intervention groups. Reports were available for 346 intervention children (148 parents) and 425 control children (287 parents). Both child and parent reports indicated that the intervention group had a significantly higher fruit intake at 2-year follow-up (difference, servings/d: 0.15; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.286 for child reports; 0.19; 95 % CI 0.030, 0.340 for parent reports). No significant effects on vegetable intake were observed. Significant positive intervention effects were also found for knowledge of fruit recommendations among boys. Some evidence was found for partial mediation analyses of the effects on fruit intake. The present study indicates that the Schoolgruiten scheme was effective in increasing children's fruit intake and that appreciation of the project partially mediated this effect.Public Health Nutrition 10/2008; 12(8):1213-23. DOI:10.1017/S1368980008003777 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Both cross-sectional and longitudinal research depict a decline in the fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) of children and youths with age, but identifying developmental changes and their influences with regard to FVC cannot be fully explained with application of only one of these research designs. Reviewed here are results from longitudinal and cross-sectional research, and a proposal is presented for a lifespan development methodology that uses a sequential design strategy to illuminate the multilevel processes that determine FVC. Conclusions from the review were similar for both cross-sectional and longitudinal research, with fruit and vegetable (FV) preferences and FV accessibility/availability being the most consistent influences on FVC. Furthermore, this review illuminates several methodological issues, offering suggestions to strengthen comparisons between studies. Research designs that incorporate longitudinal, cross-sectional, and time-lag data are warranted.Nutrition Reviews 03/2009; 67(2):65-76. DOI:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00142.x · 5.54 Impact Factor