Wear of ceramic and antagonist--a systematic evaluation of influencing factors in vitro.
ABSTRACT (1) To systematically review the existing literature on in vitro assessments of antagonist wear of ceramic materials; (2) To systematically evaluate possible influencing factors on material and antagonist wear of ceramic specimens.
The database MEDLINE was searched with the terms "enamel," "wear" and "antagonist." The selected studies were analyzed with regard to wear parameters, type of antagonist and outcome. In the laboratory study, three ceramic materials were selected with different compositions and physical properties: IPS d.SIGN low-fusing metal ceramic, IPS Empress leucite ceramic, e.max Press lithium disilicate ceramic. These materials were subjected to the Ivoclar wear method (Willytec chewing simulator, 120,000cycles, 5kg weight) by systematically modifying the following variables which resulted in 36 tests with 8 specimens in each group: (1) configuration (flat, crown specimen), (2) surface treatment (polish, glaze), (3) type of antagonist (ceramic, two types of enamel stylus). Furthermore, the enamel styluses were cut to measure the enamel thickness and cusp width. Wear of both the material and the antagonist was quantified by scanning plaster replicas of the specimens with a laser scanner (etkon es1) and matching baseline and follow-up data with the Match 3D software (Willytec). The data were log-transformed to stabilize the variance and achieve near normality. To test the influence of specific test parameters, a four-way ANOVA with post hoc tests and Bonferroni correction was applied.
The systematic review revealed 20 in vitro studies in which a material and the antagonist wear of the same material was examined. However, the results were inconsistent mainly due to the fact that the test parameters differed widely. Most studies used prepared enamel from extracted molars as the antagonist and flat polished ceramic specimens. The test chamber was filled with water and some sort of sliding movement was integrated in the wear generating process. However, there was a huge variation in relation to the applied force, the used force actuator, the number of cycles, and the frequency of cycles per time as well as the number of specimens. The results of the systematic laboratory tests revealed that the following factors strongly influence the wear: configuration (more material wear of flat versus crown specimens), surface treatment (more antagonist wear of glazed versus polished specimens), the antagonist system (more material wear and less antagonist wear for ceramic stylus versus enamel stylus), and enamel thickness (less wear for thicker enamel). Material wear was not very much different between the materials. However, e.max Press generally caused more antagonist wear than the other two materials, which were quite similar. However, the main influencing factors did not yield consistent results for all the subgroups and there was a huge variability of results within the subgroups especially in those groups that used enamel as antagonist.
As far as consistency and correlation with clinical studies is concerned, the set-up that consists of unprepared enamel of molar cusps against glazed crowns seems to be the most appropriate method to evaluate a ceramic material with regard to antagonist wear. However, due to the high variability of results large sample sizes are necessary to differentiate between materials, which calls the whole in vitro approach into question.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A novel PMMA-ZrO2 composite (PZC) was prepared by resin infiltrated to ceramic method. The composite mechanical properties were evaluated and correlated to its microstructure. Partially sintered zirconia ceramics (PSZC) were made by isostatic pressing and partially sintering. Subsequently, the PZC was prepared by vacuum infiltrating prepolymerized MMA into PSZC, followed by in-situ polymerization. When PSZC-70% was used as the matrix, the bending strength, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness of the prepared composite i.e PZC-70% were 202.56±12.09 MPa, 58.71±3.98 GPa, and 4.60±0.26 MPa·m1/2, corresponding to 25.69%, 23.31%, and 169.01% improvement, respectively, in comparison with the control matrix. Among them, the fracture toughness improvement was the most prominent. According to SEM images of the fracture surfaces, each pore of zirconia skeleton was filled by organic resin contributing to the bending strength improvement. These weak interfaces between zirconia skeleton and organic resin absorbed energy and terminated the growth of microcracks which might be responsible for significant improvement in fracture toughness. This PZC material is anticipated to be a new member of the dental CAD/CAM family.Advanced Materials Research. 09/2013; 785-786:533-536.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vitro tribological behavior of modern nonmetallic restorative materials. Specimen prepared of IPS e.max Press lithium disilicate glass ceramic, IPS Empress Esthetic leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, Everest ZS Blanks yttria-stabilized zirconia and Lava Ultimate composite were subjected to wear using a wear machine designed to simulate occlusal loads. The wear of the investigated materials and antagonists were evaluated by a three-dimensional surface scanner. The quantitative wear test results were used to compare and rank the materials. Specimens were divided into two groups with steatite and alumina antagonists. For each antagonist material an analysis of variance was applied. As a post hoc test of the significant differences, Tukey's honest significant difference test was used. With steatite antagonist: wear of zirconia < wear of leucite-reinforced ceramic < wear of lithium disilicate ceramic < wear of Lava Ultimate composite. No significant wear difference was found for steatite antagonist. The wear of IPS e.max Press and Lava Ultimate against hard alumina was found to be twice lower as compared to their wear when opposing to steatite. The differences were associated with materials mechanical properties (hardness and fracture toughness) and with materials microstructure. Wear mechanisms are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Attrition–corrosion is a synthesized human enamel wear process combined mechanical effects (attrition) with corrosion. With the rising consumption of acidic food and beverages, attrition–corrosion is becoming increasingly common. Yet, research is limited and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in vitro wear loss of human enamel was investigated and the attrition–corrosion process and wear mechanism were elucidated by the analysis of the wear scar and its subsurface using focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human enamel flat-surface samples were prepared with enamel cusps as the wear antagonists. Reciprocating wear testing was undertaken under load of 5 N at the speed of 66 cycle/min for 2250 cycles with lubricants including citric acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5), acetic acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5) and distilled water. All lubricants were used at 37 °C. Similar human enamel flat-surface samples were also exposed to the same solutions as a control group. The substance loss of enamel during wear can be linked to the corrosion potential of a lubricant used. Using a lubricant with very low corrosion potential (such as distilled water), the wear mechanism was dominated by delamination with high wear loss. Conversely, the wear mechanism changed to shaving of the softened layer with less material loss in an environment with medium corrosion potential such as citric acid at pH 3.2 and 5.5 and acetic acid at pH 5.5. However, a highly corrosive environment (e.g., acetic acid at pH 3.2) caused the greatest loss of substance during wear.Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 04/2015; 44. · 3.05 Impact Factor