Article

Diffusion tensor imaging of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and working memory in recent-onset schizophrenia.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1563, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 9.47). 04/2008; 63(5):512-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.06.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Structural and functional abnormalities in frontal-parietal circuitry are thought to be associated with working memory (WM) deficits in patients with schizophrenia. This study examines whether recent-onset schizophrenia is associated with anatomical changes in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the main frontal-parietal white matter connection, and whether the integrity of the SLF is related to WM performance.
We applied a novel registration approach (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics [TBSS]) to diffusion tensor imaging data to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left and right SLF in 12 young adult patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and 17 matched control subjects.
Schizophrenia patients showed lower FA values than control subjects across the entire SLF, with particular deficits on the left SLF. Fractional anisotropy values were correlated with performance on a verbal WM task in both patient and control groups in the left but not right SLF.
Recent-onset schizophrenia patients show deficits in frontal-parietal connections, key components of WM circuitry. Moreover, the integrity of this physiological connection predicted performance on a verbal WM task, indicating that this structural change may have important functional implications. These findings support the view that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain connectivity and implicate white matter changes detectable in the early phases of the illness as one source of this dysfunction.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Katherine H Karlsgodt, Jun 17, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
143 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today's society, however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15-30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/scan/nsv015 · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Functional neurological changes after surgery combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography can directly provide evidence of anatomical localization of brain function. Using these techniques, a patient with dysgraphia before surgery was analyzed at our hospital in 2011. The patient showed omission of kana within sentences before surgery, which improved after surgery. The brain tumor was relatively small and was located within the primary sensory area (S1) of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL). DTI tractography before surgery revealed compression of the branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) by the brain tumor. These results suggest that the left SLF within the S1 of IPL plays a role in the development of dysgraphia of kana omission within sentences.
    Behavioural neurology 04/2012; 25(4):363-8. DOI:10.3233/BEN-2012-100147 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging studies have identified patterns of brain abnormalities in various stages of schizophrenia, but whether these abnormalities reflect primary factors associated with the causes of illness or secondary phenomena such as medications has been unclear. Recent work conducted within the prodromal risk paradigm suggests that progressive change in brain structure and function occurs around the time when clinically high-risk individuals transition into full-blown psychosis, effects that cannot be explained by exposure to medications or illness chronicity. This article reviews recent work bearing on the question of the timing of onset and course of brain changes, focusing on structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and resting state connectivity MRI, in association with the onset and course of psychosis. We conclude with a consideration of potential mechanisms underlying progressive tissue changes during the prodromal phase of schizophrenia and implications for prevention.
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease 04/2015; 203(5). DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000286 · 1.81 Impact Factor