Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus and Working Memory in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1563, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 04/2008; 63(5):512-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.06.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Structural and functional abnormalities in frontal-parietal circuitry are thought to be associated with working memory (WM) deficits in patients with schizophrenia. This study examines whether recent-onset schizophrenia is associated with anatomical changes in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), the main frontal-parietal white matter connection, and whether the integrity of the SLF is related to WM performance.
We applied a novel registration approach (Tract-Based Spatial Statistics [TBSS]) to diffusion tensor imaging data to examine fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left and right SLF in 12 young adult patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and 17 matched control subjects.
Schizophrenia patients showed lower FA values than control subjects across the entire SLF, with particular deficits on the left SLF. Fractional anisotropy values were correlated with performance on a verbal WM task in both patient and control groups in the left but not right SLF.
Recent-onset schizophrenia patients show deficits in frontal-parietal connections, key components of WM circuitry. Moreover, the integrity of this physiological connection predicted performance on a verbal WM task, indicating that this structural change may have important functional implications. These findings support the view that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain connectivity and implicate white matter changes detectable in the early phases of the illness as one source of this dysfunction.

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Available from: Katherine H Karlsgodt, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "This finding replicates the findings of Haney-Caron et al. (2014). White matter abnormalities in the superior longitudinal fasciculus have been associated with deficits in selective attention in children (Klarborg et al., 2013) and to be more common in persons with schizophrenia (Karlsgodt et al., 2008). We also found a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and the axial diffusivity in the right forceps minor and forceps major. "
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    ABSTRACT: Associations between white matter pathway abnormalities and antisocial personality disorder in adults are well replicated, and there is some evidence for an association of white matter abnormalities with conduct disorder (CD) in adolescents. In this study, white matter maturation using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was examined in 110 children aged 10.0±0.8 years selected to vary widely in their numbers of CD symptoms. The results replicated age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) found in previous studies. There was not a significant association between the number of CD symptoms and FA, but CD symptoms were found to be significantly associated with greater axial and radial diffusivity in a broad range of white matter tracts, particularly in girls. In complementary analyses, there were similar significant differences in axial and radial diffusivity between children who met diagnostic criteria for CD and healthy children with no symptoms of CD, particularly in girls. Brain structural abnormalities may contribute to the emergence of CD in childhood, perhaps playing a greater role in girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.07.009 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Coordinated fronto-parietal activity is likely supported by the SLF, a WM tract which in part connects Brodmann's Areas 9/46 with the supramarginal gyrus (BA 40) (Petrides and Pandya, 2002). FA in the SLF has been associated with working memory performance across a wide range of samples (Karlsgodt et al., 2008, 2010; Burzynska et al., 2011). Moreover, training of working memory has been associated with increased FA in the parietal lobe (Takeuchi et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Predicting which individuals may engage in aggressive behavior is of interest in today's society, however, there is little data on the neural basis of aggression in healthy individuals. Here, we tested whether regional differences in white matter (WM) microstructure were associated with later reports of aggressive tendencies. We recontacted healthy young adults an average of 3 years after they underwent research MRI scans. Via electronic survey, we administered the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. We divided aggression into Aggressive Thoughts (Anger and Hostility subscales) and Aggressive Acts (Verbal and Physical subscales) and used Tract Based Spatial Statistics to test the relationship of those measures to WM microstructure. In 45 individuals age 15-30 at baseline, we observed significant relationships between Aggressive Acts and fractional anisotropy (FA) in a parietal region consistent with the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). As the SLF has an established relationship to executive function, we performed an exploratory analysis in a subset of individuals with working memory data. Decreased FA in executive network regions, as well as working memory performance, were associated with later self-reported aggressive tendencies. This has implications for our healthy behavior understanding of as well as that of patient populations known to have executive dysfunction. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 02/2015; 10(9). DOI:10.1093/scan/nsv015 · 7.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The left supramarginal gyrus volume emerged as the only significant predictor for negative symptoms. C.-E.J. Tseng et al. / Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 231 (2015) 286–291 289 in the SLF bilaterally (Karlsgodt et al., 2009; Rotarska-Jagiela et al., 2009; Perez-Iglesias et al., 2010a), on the left side only (Seok et al., 2007; Szeszko et al., 2008; Karlsgodt et al., 2008; Perez-Iglesias et al., 2010b) or on the right side only (Rowland et al., 2009; Ruef et al., 2012), either in first-episode patients (Perez-Iglesias et al., 2010b; Ruef et al., 2012), patients with onset of the illness within 2 years (Karlsgodt et al., 2008; Szeszko et al., 2008), or with cognition deficits (Rowland et al., 2009). In our study, the SLFIII integrity was reduced in patients without statistically significant difference from controls. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mirror neuron system (MNS) may be implicated in schizophrenia. This study investigated MNS structures, including the pars opercularis (Pop), the supramarginal gyrus (SMg), the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and callosal fibers interconnecting bilateral Pop (CC-Pop) and SMg (CC-SMg), and clarified their relationships with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Participants comprised 32 schizophrenia patients and 32 matched controls who received T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, T1WI) and diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). The cortical measures were computed from the T1WI data. Tract integrity was assessed using a tractography-based analysis of the generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) derived from the DSI data. Pearson׳s correlations and multiple linear regression analysis were used to investigate the associations between MNS structures and positive and negative symptom scores of schizophrenia. Cortical thickness in bilateral Pop and SMg were significantly thinner and mean GFA of CC-Pop was significantly decreased in patients. Negative symptoms were significantly correlated with left SMg volume, and positive symptoms were significantly correlated with right SMg thickness. Multiple linear regression analysis showed left SMg volume to be the strongest contributor to the negative symptoms. The association between left SMg volume and negative symptoms may reflect the degree of social cognition impairment in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 01/2015; 231(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.01.010 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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