[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemodynamic goal-directed therapies (GDT) may improve outcome following elective major surgery. So far, few data exist regarding haemodynamic optimization during emergency surgery. In this randomized, controlled trial, 50 surgical patients with hypovolemic or septic conditions were enrolled and we compared two algorithms of GDTs based either on conventional parameters and pressure pulse variation (control group) or on cardiac index, global end-diastolic volume index and stroke volume variation as derived from the PiCCO monitoring system (optimized group). Postoperative outcome was estimated by a composite index including major complications and by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score within the first 3 days after surgery (POD1, POD2 and POD3). Data from 43 patients were analyzed (control group, N = 23; optimized group, N = 20). Similar amounts of fluid were given in the two groups. Intraoperatively, dobutamine was given in 45 % optimized patients but in no control patients. Major complications occurred more frequently in the optimized group [19 (95 %) versus 10 (40 %) in the control group, P < 0.001]. Likewise, SOFA scores were higher in the optimized group on POD1 (10.2 ± 2.5 versus 6.6 ± 2.2 in the control group, P = 0.001), POD2 (8.4 ± 2.6 vs 5.0 ± 2.4 in the control group, P = 0.002) and POD 3 (5.2 ± 3.6 and 2.2 ± 1.3 in the control group, P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (13 % in the control group and 25 % in the optimized group). Haemodynamic optimization based on volumetric and flow PiCCO-derived parameters was associated with a less favorable postoperative outcome compared with a conventional GDT protocol during emergency surgery.
International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10877-015-9691-x · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stress is an external factor known to be a potent exacerbator of respiratory infections. Most explanations of how stress affects
susceptibility to airway infections focus on the immune system. However, evidence is increasing that respiratory pathogens
are equally responsive to the hormonal output of stress. This chapter considers the bacterial and mucosal determinants of
respiratory tract infections and their interrelationship during stressful conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal epithelium is a critical barrier between the internal and external milieux of the mammalian host. Epithelial
interactions between these two host environments have been shown to be modulated by several different, cross-communicating
cell types residing in the gut mucosa. These include enteric neurons, whose activity is influenced by bacterial pathogens,
and their secreted products. Neurotransmitters appear to influence epithelial associations with bacteria in the intestinal
lumen. For example, internalization of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 into the Peyer’s patch mucosa of the small intestine is altered after the inhibition of neural activity with saxitoxin,
a neuronal sodium channel blocker. Catecholamine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, also alter bacterial
internalization in Peyer’s patches. In the large intestine, norepinephrine increases the mucosal adherence of E. coli. These neurotransmitter actions are mediated by well-defined catecholamine receptors situated on the basolateral membranes
of epithelial cells rather than through direct interactions with luminal bacteria. Investigations of the involvement of neuroepithelial
communication in the regulation of interactions between the intestinal mucosa and luminal bacteria will provide novel insights
into the mechanisms underlying bacterial colonization and pathogenesis at mucosal surfaces.
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