To assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth.
We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic supplement or maltodextrin (control) for 1 year.
Subjects who received the prebiotic supplement had a smaller increase in body mass index (BMI) compared with the control group (BMI difference 0.52 +/- 0.16 kg/m2, P = .016), BMI Z-score (difference 0.13 +/- 0.06, P = .048) and total fat mass (difference 0.84 +/- 0.36 kg, P = .022). The prebiotic group maintained their baseline BMI Z-score (0.03 +/- 0.01, paired t test, P = .30), although BMI Z-score increased significantly in the control group (0.13 +/- 0.03, P < .001). In considering subjects whose usual calcium intake was > or = 700 mg/d, those who received the prebiotic supplement had a relative change in BMI that was 0.82 kg/m2 less than control subjects (P < .01), and BMI Z-score that was 0.20 less than control subjects (P = .003). Differences tended to be maintained 1 year after supplementation was stopped.
Prebiotic supplementation and avoidance of a low calcium intake can have significant effects in modulating BMI and other body composition changes during puberty.
"Several studies have related prebiotic treatment to a reduction in ectopic lipid accumulation such as steatosis, reduced fat storage in white adipose tissue, in systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in high-fat diet fed and genetically obese models [152–154], and also reduced endotoxemia . In clinical experiments, beneficial effects of prebiotic administration were observed, such as a reduction in BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and insulin resistance [156–158]. The food intake regulation is another important feature of gut microbiota modulation by prebiotics, which induce gut hormone production, such as GLP-1 and PYY, that signal via anorectic pathways in the hypothalamus, and a reduction in ghrelin expression, a gastric orexigenic peptide, thereby reducing food intake [159, 160]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is the main condition that is correlated with the appearance of insulin resistance, which is the major link among its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and several types of cancer. Obesity affects a large number of individuals worldwide; it degrades human health and quality of life. Here, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes, which is promoted by a bacterial diversity shift mediated by overnutrition. Whole bacteria, their products, and metabolites undergo increased translocation through the gut epithelium to the circulation due to degraded tight junctions and the consequent increase in intestinal permeability that culminates in inflammation and insulin resistance. Several strategies focusing on modulation of the gut microbiota (antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics) are being experimentally employed in metabolic derangement in order to reduce intestinal permeability, increase the production of short chain fatty acids and anorectic gut hormones, and promote insulin sensitivity to counteract the inflammatory status and insulin resistance found in obese individuals.
Mediators of Inflammation 06/2013; 2013(6778):986734. DOI:10.1155/2013/986734 · 3.24 Impact Factor
"Prebiotics promote host absorption of minerals, such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ ion. For example, β-(2-1) fructans promotes the absorption of Ca2+ by the colonic mucosa in human (Abrams et al., 2007). For Ca2+ absorption, SCFA contributed to lower luminal pH in the large intestine which, in turn, elicits a modi-fication of Ca2+ speciation and hence solubility in the luminal phase so that its passive diffusion is improved (Lopez et al., 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prebiotic oligosaccharides, with a degree of polymerization (DP) of mostly less than 10, exhibit diverse biological activities that contribute to human health. Currently available prebiotics are mostly derived from disaccharides and simple polysaccharides found in plants. Subtle differences in the structures of oligosaccharides can cause significant differences in their prebiotic proper-ties. Therefore, alternative substances supplying polysaccharides that have more diverse and complex structures are necessary for the development of novel oligosaccharides that have actions not present in existing prebiotics. In this review, we show that structural polysaccharides found in plant cell walls, such as xylans and pectins, are particularly potential resources supplying broadly diverse polysaccharides to produce new prebiotics.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2012; 20(4):371-379. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2012.20.4.371 · 1.73 Impact Factor
"Treating obese individuals with fructans-type prebiotics has been tried in a limited number of intervention studies. Ingestion of inulin-type fructans prebiotic (8g/d) for one year showed a significant benefit in the maintenance of BMI, and fat mass in non obese young adolescents . The daily intake of yacon syrup, which delivered 0.14g fructans per kg per day over 120 days, increased satiety sensation and decreased body weight, waist circumference and body mass index in obese pre-menopausal women . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gut microbiota is increasingly considered as a symbiotic partner for the maintenance of health. The homeostasis of the gut microbiota is dependent on host characteristics (age, gender, genetic background...), environmental conditions (stress, drugs, gastrointestinal surgery, infectious and toxic agents...). Moreover, it is dependent on the day-to-day dietary changes. Experimental data in animals, but also observational studies in obese patients, suggest that the composition of the gut microbiota is a factor characterizing obese versus lean individuals, diabetic versus non diabetic patients, or patients presenting hepatic diseases such as non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Interestingly, the changes in the gut microbes can be reversed by dieting and related weight loss. The qualitative and quantitative changes in the intake of specific food components (fatty acids, carbohydrates, micronutrients, prebiotics, probiotics), have not only consequences on the gut microbiota composition, but may modulate the expression of genes in host tissues such as the liver, adipose tissue, intestine, muscle. This in turn may drive or lessen the development of fat mass and metabolic disturbances associated with the gut barrier function and the systemic immunity. The relevance of the prebiotic or probiotic approaches in the management of obesity in humans is supported by few intervention studies in humans up to now, but the experimental data obtained with those compounds help to elucidate novel potential molecular targets relating diet with gut microbes. The metagenomic and integrative metabolomic approaches could help elucidate which bacteria, among the trillions in human gut, or more specifically which activities/genes, could participate to the control of host energy metabolism, and could be relevant for future therapeutic developments.
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