Connexin 43 expression of foreign body giant cells after implantation of nanoparticulate hydroxyapatite.
ABSTRACT In bone a role of connexin 43 has been implicated with the fusion of mononuclear precursors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage into multinucleated cells. In order to investigate the putative role of connexin 43 in formation of bone osteoclast-like foreign body giant cells which are formed in response to implantation of biomaterials, nanoparticulate hydroxyapatite had been implanted into defects of minipig femura. After 20 days the defect areas were harvested and connexin 43 expression and synthesis were investigated by using immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, and in situ hybridization within macrophages and osteoclast-like foreign body giant cells. Morphological analysis of gap junctions is performed ultrastructurally. As shown on protein and mRNA level numerous connexin 43 positive macrophages and foreign body giant cells (FBGC) were localized within the granulation tissue and along the surfaces of the implanted hydroxyapatite (HA). Besides, the formation of FBGC by fusion of macrophages could be shown ultrastructurally. Connexin 43 labeling observed on the protein and mRNA level could be attributed to gap junctions identified ultrastructurally between macrophages, between FBGC, and between FBGC and macrophages. Annular gap junctions in the cytoplasm of FBGC pointed to degradation of the channels, and the ubiquination that had occurred in the course of degradation was confirmed by Western blot analysis. All in all, the presently observed pattern of connexin 43 labeling refers to an functional role of gap junctional communication in the formation of osteoclast-like foreign body giant cells formed in response to implantation of the nanoparticulate HA.
- SourceAvailable from: Eric C Beyer[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lens epithelial cells are physiologically coupled to each other and to the lens fibers by an extensive network of intercellular gap junctions. In the rat, the epithelial-epithelial junctions appear to contain connexin43, a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Limitations on the use of rodent lenses for the study of gap junction formation and regulation led us to examine the expression of connexin43 in embryonic chick lenses. We report here that chick connexin43 is remarkably similar to its rat counterpart in primary amino acid sequence and in several key structural features as deduced by molecular cDNA cloning. The cross-reactivity of an anti-rat connexin43 serum with chick connexin43 permitted definitive immunocytochemical localization of chick connexin43 to lens epithelial gap junctional plaques and examination of the biosynthesis of connexin43 by metabolic radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation. We show that chick lens cells synthesize connexin43 as a single, 42-kD species that is efficiently posttranslationally converted to a 45-kD form. Metabolic labeling of connexin43 with 32P-orthophosphate combined with dephosphorylation experiments reveals that this shift in apparent molecular weight is due solely to phosphorylation. These results indicate that embryonic chick lens is an appropriate system for the study of connexin43 biosynthesis and demonstrate for the first time that connexin43 is a phosphoprotein.Journal of Membrane Biology 07/1990; 116(2):163-75. · 2.48 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gap junctions are a unique type of intercellular junction found in most animal cell types. Gap junctions permit the intercellular passage of small molecules and have been implicated in diverse biological processes, such as development, cellular metabolism, and cellular growth control. In vertebrates, gap junctions are composed of proteins from the "connexin" gene family. The majority of connexins are modified posttranslationally by phosphorylation, primarily on serine amino acids; however, phosphotyrosine has also been detected in connexin from cells coexpressing nonreceptor tyrosine protein kinases. Connexins are targeted by numerous protein kinases, of which some have been identified: protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the v-Src tyrosine protein kinase. Phosphorylation has been implicated in the regulation of a broad variety of connexin processes, such as the trafficking, assembly/disassembly, degradation, as well as the gating of gap junction channels. This review examines the consequences of connexin phosphorylation for the regulation of gap junctional communication.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/2001; 384(2):205-15. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this work, the effects of bacterial LPS, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma on gap junctional communication (dye coupling) and on the expression of connexin43 (immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and RT-PCR) in monocytes/macrophages were studied. Freshly isolated human monocytes plated at high density and treated either with LPS plus IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha plus IFN-gamma became transiently dye coupled (Lucifer yellow) within 24 h. Cells treated with LPS, TNF-alpha, or IFN-gamma alone remained dye uncoupled. In dye-coupled cells, the spread of Lucifer yellow to neighboring cells was reversibly blocked with 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, a gap junction blocker, but it was unaffected by oxidized ATP or probenecid, which block ionotropic ATP-activated channels and organic anion transporters, respectively. Abs against TNF-alpha significantly reduced the LPS plus IFN-gamma-induced increase in dye coupling. In dye-coupled monocytes/macrophages, but not in control cells, both connexin43 protein and mRNA were detected, and their levels were higher in cells with an elevated incidence of dye coupling. In dye-coupled cells, the localization of connexin43 immunoreactivity was diffuse at perinuclear regions and thin cell processes. The addition of 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid induced a profound reduction of monocyte/macrophage transmigration across a blood brain barrier model. It also induced a significant reduction in the secretion of metalloproteinase-2 in cells treated with TNF-alpha plus IFN-gamma. We propose that some monocyte/macrophage responses are coordinated by connexin-formed membrane channels expressed transiently at inflammatory sites in which these cells form aggregates.The Journal of Immunology 03/2003; 170(3):1320-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor