Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein snippet NAP reduces tau hyperphosphorylation and enhances learning in a novel transgenic mouse model.
ABSTRACT Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) differentially interacts with chromatin to regulate essential genes. Because complete ADNP deficiency is embryonic lethal, the outcome of partial ADNP deficiency was examined. ADNP(+/-) mice exhibited cognitive deficits, significant increases in phosphorylated tau, tangle-like structures, and neurodegeneration compared with ADNP(+/+) mice. Increased tau hyperphosphorylation is known to cause memory impairments in neurodegenerative diseases associated with tauopathies, including the most prevalent Alzheimer's disease. The current results suggest that ADNP is an essential protein for brain function and plays a role in normal cognitive performance. ADNP-deficient mice offer an ideal paradigm for evaluation of cognitive enhancers. NAP (NAPVSIPQ) is a peptide derived from ADNP that interacts with microtubules and provides potent neuroprotection. NAP treatment partially ameliorated cognitive deficits and reduced tau hyperphosphorylation in the ADNP(+/-) mice. NAP is currently in phase II clinical trials assessing effects on mild cognitive impairment.
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive dysfunction is a key predictor of functional disability in schizophrenia. Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an intranasally administered peptide currently being developed for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. This study investigates effects of davunetide on cognition in schizophrenia. Sixty-three subjects with schizophrenia received davunetide at one of two different doses (5, 30 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks in a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group randomized clinical trial. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) assessed cognitive effects. The UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA) and the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) assessed functional capacity. Subjects continued their current antipsychotic treatment during the trial. There were no significant differences in MCCB change between davunetide and placebo over the three treatment arms (p=.45). Estimated effect-size (d) values were .34 and .21 favoring the 5 and 30 mg doses vs. placebo, respectively. For UPSA, there was a significant main effect of treatment across study arms (p=.048). Between-group effect size (d) values were.74 and .48, favoring the 5 and 30 mg doses, respectively. No significant effects were observed on the SCoRS or on symptom ratings. No significant side effects or adverse events were observed. Davunetide was well tolerated. Effects of davunetide on MCCB-rated cognition were not significant relative to placebo. In contrast, a significant beneficial effect was detected for the UPSA. Based upon effect-size considerations, sample sizes of at least 45-50 subjects/group would be required to obtain significant effects on both MCCB and UPSA, providing guidance for continued clinical development in schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Research 12/2011; 136(1-3):25-31. · 4.59 Impact Factor
- Journal of medical genetics. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with the development of dementia. It has been established that the pathological hallmarks of neurofibrillary tau protein tangles and senile β-amyloid protein plaques lead to degeneration of neurons via inflammatory pathways. The progressive death of neurons, primarily cholinergic, results in a gradual and fatal decline of cognitive abilities and memory. By targeting these pathological hallmarks and their associated pathways, AD drug therapy can potentially attenuate the disease state. In this review article, we focus on newly proposed and experimental AD drug treatment. We discuss three characteristic areas of AD treatment: prevention of neurotoxic β-amyloid protein plaque formation, stability of neuronal tau proteins, and increase in neuronal growth and function. The primary drug therapy methods and patents discussed include the use of neurotrophic factors and targeting of the amyloid precursor protein cleavage pathway as prevention of β-amyloid formation and tau aggregation.CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets - CNS & Neurological Disorders) 07/2014; · 3.77 Impact Factor