Innervation and Neurotransmitter Localization in the Lung of the Nile bichirPolypterus bichir bichir

University of Messina, Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, Faculty of Science, Section of Comparative Neurobiology and Biomonitoring, Messina, Italy.
The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology (Impact Factor: 1.54). 09/2007; 290(9):1166-77. DOI: 10.1002/ar.20576
Source: PubMed


Anatomical and functional studies of the autonomic innervation in the lung of dipnoan fishes and the bichirs are lacking. The present immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the presence of nerve fibers in the muscle layers of the lung of the bichir, Polypterus bichir bichir, and identified the immunoreactive elements of this innervation. Tyrosine hydroxylase, acetylcholinesterase, and peptide immunoreactivity was detected in the intramural nerve fibers. Extensive innervation was present in the submucosa where adenylatecyclase/activating polypeptide 38, substance P, P(2)X(2), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-immunoreactive nerve fibers mainly supplied blood vessels. A collection of monopolar neurons located in the submucosal and the muscular layers of the glottis expressed a variety of various transmitters. These neurons may be homologous to ganglion cells in the branchial and pharyngeal rami of the vagus in fishes. Nerves containing 5-HT and P(2)X(2) receptor immunoreactivity projected to the lung epithelium. Associated with neuroepithelial cells in mucociliated epithelium, were neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunopositive axons. The physiological function of this innervation is not known. The present study shows that the pattern of autonomic innervation of the bichir lung may by similar in its elements to that in tetrapods.

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    • "Putative oxygen receptors cells (NECs) were identified previously in P. bichir bichir (Zaccone et al., 2007). In these cells immunoreactivities for 5HT, the purinoreceptor 2X2, PACAP, SP and AchE were reported (Zaccone et al., 2007, 2008). Examination of the NEC-like cells in the lung of the species studied also shown that 5HT, ChAT and nNOS are markers of these cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anatomical and functional studies of the autonomic innervation and the putative oxygen receptors-the neuroepithelial (NEC)-like cells of the bichirs are lacking. The present paper describes the distribution of both NEC-like cells and the polymorphous granular cells (PGCs) that populate the mucociliated epithelium of the lung in the air breathing fish Polypterus senegalus. By using confocal immunohistochemistry we determined the coexpression of specific neurochemical markers. Colocalization studies showed that 5HT is coexpressed with calbindin and nNOS in the NEC-like cells and PGCs, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is coexpressed with nNOS in both the two types of cells. Distribution of neurotransmitters (5HT, NO) and neurochemical marker ChAT is also investigated in the lung muscle. The role of these transmitters may be the autonomic control of circulation and respiration. However, the importance of these signals for the respiratory responses in the species studied is still not known. The present study also shows for the first time the simultaneous occurrence of piscidin 1 and 5HT in the PGCs. The function of these cells being equivalent to ones found in fish gill subepithelial parenchyma, is still not known. Due to the importance of piscidin 1 in local immune defense, more research is useful to understand a possible interaction of PGCs with immune response in the bichir lung.
    Acta histochemica 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acthis.2015.08.007 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "The swim bladder ganglion cells are adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons (Fänge, 1983). Ganglion cells were also reported in nerve fiber bundles entering the smooth muscle of the glottis in the bichir lung (Zaccone et al., 2007). A collection of similar cells has been described in the branchial region in fish (Zaccone et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Swim bladders and lungs are homologous structures. Phylogenetically ancient actinopterygian fish such as Cladistians (Polypteriformes), Ginglymods (Lepisosteids) and lungfish have primitive lungs that have evolved in the Paleozoic freshwater earliest gnathostomes as an adaptation to hypoxic stress. Here we investigated the structure and the role of autonomic nerves in the physostome swim bladder of the cyprinid goldfish (Carassius auratus) and the respiratory bladder of lepisosteids: the longnose gar and the spotted gar (Lepisosteus osseus and L. oculatus) to demonstrate that these organs have different innervation patterns that are responsible for controlling different functional aspects. The goldfish swim bladder is a richly innervated organ mainly controlled by cholinergic and adrenergic innervation also involving the presence of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) neurotransmitters (nNOS, VIP, 5-HT and SP), suggesting a simple model for the regulation of the swim bladder system. The pattern of the autonomic innervation of the trabecular muscle of the Lepisosteus respiratory bladder is basically similar to that of the tetrapod lung with overlapping of both muscle architecture and control nerve patterns. These autonomic control elements do not exist in the bladders of the two species studied since they have very different physiological roles. The ontogenetic origin of the pulmonoid swim bladder (PSB) of garfishes may help understand how the expression of these autonomic control substances in the trabecular muscle is regulated including their interaction with the corpuscular cells in the respiratory epithelium of this bimodal air-breathing fish.
    Acta histochemica 01/2012; 114(8):763-72. DOI:10.1016/j.acthis.2012.01.003 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "A glycolytic pathway is likely providing an energy supply during the bioluminescence (Baguet, 1995). Both VIP and PACAP are considered reliable markers for both parasympathetic nerve cell bodies, in fish heart, lung and gut (Zaccone et al., 2007, 2009a,b; Olsson, 2009). In the central nervous system, PACAP acts as a neuromodulator. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anatomical and functional studies of the autonomic innervation of the photophores of luminescent fishes are scarce. The present immunohistochemical study demonstrated the presence of nerve fibers in the luminous epithelium and lens epithelium of the photophores of the hatchet fish, Argyropelecus hemigymnus and identified the immunoreactive elements of this innervation. Phenylethanolanine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catecholamine (CA)-synthesizing enzymes were detected in nerve varicosities inside the two epithelia. Neuropeptides were localized in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and substance P (SP)- and its NK11 receptor-immunopositive nerves in the lens epithelium. Neuropeptides were also localized in non-neural cell types such as the lens cells, which displayed immunoreactivities for pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) and their receptors R-12 and 93093-3. This reflects the ability of the neuropeptide-containing nerves and lens cells to turn on and off the expression of selected messengers. It appears that the neuropeptide-containing nerves demonstrated in this study may be sensory. Furthermore, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-immunopositive axons associated with photocytes in the luminous epithelium have previously been described in this species. Whereas it is clear that the photophores receive efferent (motor) fibers of spinal sympathetic origin, the origin of the neuropeptide sensory innervation remains to be determined. The functional roles of the above neuropeptides or their effects on the bioluminescence or the chemical nature of the terminals, either sensory or postganglionic neurons innervating the photophores, are still not known.
    Acta histochemica 07/2011; 113(4):457-64. DOI:10.1016/j.acthis.2010.04.005 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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