Maternal-foetal status of copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in obese gestational diabetic pregnancies
ABSTRACT Obesity is well known to be a contributory risk factor for several disease states, including diabetes mellitus. Paucity of data on maternal-foetal status of essential trace elements in obese diabetic pregnancies prompted us to undertake this study. Maternal venous and umbilical arterial and venous blood samples were collected from obese gestational diabetic patients (Body Mass Index (BMI) >30) and control obese pregnant women (BMI>30) at time of spontaneous delivery or caesarean sections and concentrations of essential trace elements such as Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn were determined in various samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and total antioxidant (TAO) in maternal and umbilical blood were assessed using appropriate reagent kits. Maternal-foetal disposition and exchange parameters of elements studied were assessed using established criteria. Concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn in serum of control obese pregnant women (n=10) averaged 2404, 2663, 11.0, 89.0 and 666 microg/l respectively, while in the obese diabetic group (n=11), the corresponding values averaged 2441, 2580, 13.3, 85.1 and 610 microg/l respectively. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPX and TAO were not significantly different in maternal veins of control and diabetic groups. Varying differences were noted in the case of antioxidant enzyme activities in umbilical blood samples of control and study groups. We conclude that obesity is not associated with significant alterations in antioxidant enzyme status in gestational diabetes and only with relatively minor alterations in status of some essential trace elements.
SourceAvailable from: Nancy Morse[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East.Nutrients 03/2015; 7(3):1494-1537. DOI:10.3390/nu7031494 · 3.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementa-tion on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 –April 2013 were randomly divided into zinc (n=22) and placebo (n=22) groups and recived 30mg/day zinc gluconate and placebo for eight consecutive weeks respectively. Dietary food intake was estimated from 3-days diet records. Se-rum levels of zinc, fasting blood sugar, and insulin were measured by conventional methods. Also homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated. Results: Serumlevels of fasting blood sugar, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance slightly decreased in zinc group, but these changes were not statistically significant. Serum zinc levels (P =0.012), energy (P=0.037), protein (P=0.019) and fat (P=0.017) intakes increased statistically significant in the zinc group after intervention but not in the placebo group. Conclusion: Oral supplementation with zinc could be effective in increasing serum zinc levels and energy intake with no effects on fasting blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin levels. Keywords: Zinc, Insulin resistance, Impaired glucose tolerance, EnergyIranian journal of public health 01/2014; 43(12):211-217. · 0.24 Impact Factor