The purpose of this systematic review was to provide physicians and patients with a synthesis of the available data and an assessment of the operating characteristics associated with baseline LDCT screening for lung cancer. Various databases, meeting abstracts, clinical trials in progress, and major textbooks for relevant data from 1966 to 2006 were searched for relevant studies. The median value of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 81%, 81%, 8% and 99%, respectively. Of the studies that compared LDCT with other lung cancer screening maneuvers, it was found that LDCT detected a greater number of cancerous nodules. On average, 80% of lung cancers detected by baseline LDCT screening were categorized as Stage I cancers. Current data demonstrate that both the operating characteristics of baseline LDCT screening and the relatively high proportion of Stage I cancers detected with LDCT may potentially lead to effective screening programs. However, evidence of reduced mortality and morbidity with the use of LDCT is not established. Therefore, LDCT for lung cancer screening should be considered as investigative and needs to be confirmed by well-designed randomized controlled trials prior to community and institutional implementation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To take lung cancer screening into national programmes, we first have to answer the question whether low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening and treatment of early lesions will decrease lung cancer mortality compared with a control group, to accurately estimate the balance of benefits and harms, and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2008; 99(4):557-62. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604509 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Melbourne University Optoelectronic Multicomputer Project is
investigating dense optical interconnection networks capable of
providing low latency data transfers of small data items. Such
capabilities are useful in the exploitation of small grain parallelism.
In many cases, reducing the grain size of tasks increases the amount of
parallelism which can be found in the program. Our networks use an
organization of data transfers called PANDORA (PArallel Newscasts on a
Dense Optical Reconfigurable Array). The communication patterns on a
PANDORA network are pre-determined, removing the overhead of sending and
decoding addressing information. Instead the data is recognized by the
time of arrival and the channel on which it arrives. Previous efforts
have focused on 2-dimensional multiple broadcasting networks where each
node may broadcast a different data item on the row and columns of the
network. For large processor arrays, we have to reduce the density of
the interconnection network as full interconnection on each row becomes
too expensive. This paper discusses a 4-dimensional network which
achieves a significant reduction in density with only a small increase
in data transfer delays
Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks, 1994. (ISPAN), International Symposium on; 01/1995
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