Searching for genes influencing a complex disease: the case of coeliac disease.
ABSTRACT Recently, a few genes have been reported to be causative in inflammatory diseases. Still, we are waiting for the vast majority to be discovered. New tools for genotyping and statistical analysis have been developed and emphasis has been put on study design. Coeliac disease (CD) is a disorder, where prolamins in dietary wheat gluten and related proteins from rye or barley are not tolerated. It is one of the most common chronic diseases in humans exceeding a population prevalence of 1%. In this article, we will summarise what is currently known about the genetics influencing CD with the emphasis on the non-HLA genetic component. We will discuss some difficulties when searching for susceptibility genes in disorders with complex inheritance patterns.
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ABSTRACT: To address the role of CD209 in celiac disease (CD) patients. Non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic factors in CD predisposition are poorly understood, and environmental factors like infectious pathogens may play a role. CD209 is a dendritic and macrophage surface molecule involved in pathogen recognition and immune activation. Recently, a functional variant in the promoter of the CD209 gene (-336A/G) has been shown to affect the transcriptional CD209 activity in vitro and it has been associated with a higher susceptibility to/or severity of infection. The study population was composed of two case-control cohorts of 103 and 386 CD patients and 312 y 419 healthy controls as well as a panel of 257 celiac families. Genotyping for the -336A/G CD209 promoter polymorphism was performed using a TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay. HLA-DQ was determined by hybridization with allele specific probes. Initially, the case-control and familial studies did not find any association of the -336 A/G CD209 genetic variant with CD susceptibility. However, the stratification by HLA-DQ2 did reveal a significant association of CD209 promoter polymorphism in the HLA-DQ2 (-) group (carrier A vs GG in DQ2 (-) vs DQ2 (+) patients (P = 0.026, OR = 3.71). The -336G CD209 allele seems to be involved in CD susceptibility in HLA-DQ2 (-) patients. Our results might suggest a possible role of pathogens in the onset of a minor group of CD patients.World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2006; 12(27):4397-400. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The disease mechanisms of complex inflammatory disorders are difficult to define because of extensive interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Coeliac disease is a typical complex inflammatory disorder, but this disease is unusual in that crucial genetic and environmental factors have been identified. This knowledge has allowed functional studies of the predisposing HLA molecules, the identification of antigenic epitopes and detailed studies of disease-relevant T cells in coeliac disease. This dissection of the pathogenic mechanisms of coeliac disease has uncovered principles that are relevant to other chronic inflammatory diseases.Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2002; 2(9):647-55. · 33.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) is an important negative regulator of T-cell response and its genetic association with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently been demonstrated. The frequent co-association of autoimmune diseases (AID) and the implication from multiple genome scans that the CTLA4 gene region is a general autoimmune region, led us to study the role of CTLA4 in independent cohorts of T1D, coeliac disease (CD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We present independent data that confirm the association of CTLA4 in Dutch patients with juvenile onset T1D and show differential association of CTLA4 with CD and RA. The CTLA4 gene polymorphisms were tested for association in 350 T1D, 310 CD, 520 RA patients and 900 controls. In addition, 218 families were tested by the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). T1D patients showed the highest association with the MH30*G: -1147*C: +49*G: CT60*G: JO37_3*G (haplotype 2) in both a case/control cohort (P=0.002, OR=1.42) and by TDT (P=0.02, OR=1.43). In contrast, this haplotype showed no association in the RA and CD cohorts. However, we observed an increased frequency of the MH30*G: -1147*T: +49*A: CT60*G: JO37_3*A (haplotype 3) in the CD patients diagnosed at a young age (OR=1.6, P=0.026, P (c)=0.052). Furthermore, when T1D and CD patients were stratified based on the HLA risk, the T1D susceptible CTLA4 haplotype 2 was over-represented in the high HLA-risk T1D and CD groups. In conclusion, we confirmed association between CTLA4 haplotype 2 and T1D in the Dutch population. Association with another CTLA4 haplotype (haplotype 3) was confirmed for CD, but only in those patients who had an early age of expression. No effect was found between RA and CTLA4. The association of the CTLA4 haplotype 2 with the high-risk HLA genotype in T1D and CD, which share DQ2 as the one of high-risk alleles, might provide a clue to understanding the common genetic background of AID.Human Genetics 11/2005; 118(1):58-66. · 4.63 Impact Factor