Effects of zinc on hepatic antioxidant systems and the mRNA expression levels assayed by cDNA microarrays in rats.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated effects of zinc on the hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidant components and mRNA expression levels in rats.
Three diets with different Zn levels including Zn adequacy (ZA; 34.50 mg/kg, control), Zn deficiency (ZD; 3.30 mg/kg), and Zn overdose (ZO; 345.45 mg/kg) were fed to rats for 6 weeks. The mRNA expression levels were analyzed by cDNA microarrays.
The body weight of rats fed the ZD diet was less (p < 0.01) than that of rats fed the ZA diet. Zn overdose elevated body weight, but the increase was not detected (p > 0.05) at week 6. Although copper and iron status in serum were declined (p < 0.01), those in liver were not affected (p > 0.05) by the high intake of zinc. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) remained unchanged (p > 0.05) by zinc treatment. Rats fed the ZD diet showed reductions(p < 0.01) in the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and increases (p < 0.01) in the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contents. Rats fed the ZO diet particularly had higher Cu-Zn SOD (p < 0.01) activity. The mRNA expression levels of SOD were upregulated in the ZO group, and CAT was downregulated in the ZD group, while no changes in GPx mRNA levels were found after zinc treatment.
The study suggested that zinc deficiency largely decreased body weight; zinc overdose, however, moderately stimulated growth in the early growing phase of rats. High dietary zinc did not compete with liver copper and iron status. Although Zn deficiency impaired antioxidant functions, zinc overdose hardly enhanced the antioxidant systems of animals.
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ABSTRACT: Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem β domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms.Ecotoxicology 05/2012; 21(7):1928-36. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Les prématurés subissent un stress oxydant qui résulte d’une défense antioxydante faible et/ou d’une charge oxydante. Des données suggèrent qu’un stress oxydant peut affecter le métabolisme énergétique et mener au syndrome métabolique. Hypothèse: Une faible défense antioxydante tôt dans la vie est suffisante pour affecter le métabolisme énergétique à long terme. Méthodes: Quatre groupes de cobayes (n=21) ont reçu entre leurs 3e et 7e jours de vie une diète standard (C-1sem, C-14sem) ou une diète déficiente (DC-1sem, DC-14sem). À 7 jours, les groupes C-1sem et DC-1sem ont été sacrifiés, le plasma et le foie collectés. Les groupes C-14sem et DC-14sem ont reçu la diète standard jusqu’à 14sem de vie. La glycémie et les triglycérides plasmatiques ont été mesurés à 1, 3, 11, et 13-14sem. La tolérance au glucose a été évaluée à 13sem. Les antioxydants hépatiques et les protéines régulant le métabolisme énergétique ont été analysés à 1 et 14sem. Résultats: Un statut redox oxydé du glutathion était associé avec la diète déficiente et était maintenu oxydé au moins jusqu’à 14sem (p<0.01). Les faibles niveaux de triglycérides plasmatiques et de glycémies, ainsi qu’une meilleure tolérance au glucose à 14sem (p<0.05) étaient associés avec un statut redox plus oxydé. Conclusion: Le faible taux de glutathion observé chez les prématurés a été reproduit dans notre modèle. Puisque nos données suggèrent un rôle protecteur d’un redox plus oxydé et que l’environnement redox est un important régulateur métabolique influençant le développement, il faudrait faire attention avant d’initier des traitements antioxydants agressifs chez les prématurés. Preterm infants are faced to oxidative stress resulting from a low antioxidant defence and/or a high oxidant load. Datas suggest that an oxidative stress may impair energy metabolism leading to metabolic syndrome development. Hypothesis: A weak antioxidant defence early in life such as observed in preterm newborns is sufficient to impair energy metabolism later in life. Methods: Four groups of guinea pigs (n=21) received between their 3rd and 7th days of life a control diet (C-1week, C-14weeks) or antioxidant deficient diet (DC-1week, DC-14weeks). At 7 day-old, 1week-groups were sacrificed for plasma and liver sampling whereas 14week-groups were fed with the control diet until 14 week-old. Blood glucose and plasma triacylglycerol were determined at 1, 3, 11 and 13-14 week-old. Glucose tolerance test was performed at 13 week-old. Hepatic antioxidant defences and key proteins regulating lipid and glucose metabolism were measured at 1 and 14 weeks. Results: The oxidized redox status of glutathione associated with the neonatal deficient diet was maintained until at least 14 week-old (p<0.01). The low plasma triacylglycerol, low blood glucose and better tolerance to glucose at 14 weeks (p<0.05) were associated with an oxidized redox status. Conclusion: The low glutathione observed in newborn preterm infants has been reproduced in our animal model. Since the oxidized redox state observed here seems to be protective against impaired energy metabolism and since the cellular redox environment is known to be an important rheostat of metabolism influencing development, it suggests being careful before adopting aggressive antioxidant treatments in preterm infants.
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ABSTRACT: The specific activities of zinc/copper (Zn/Cu)-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and manganese (Mn)-superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) were assayed in young passage 5 fibroblasts and in serially subcultured cells that were characterized as senescent at passages 15-35. SOD-1 and SOD-2 activities did not significantly change in senescent and young cells cultured in either routine medium [minimum essential medium 1 (MEM1)], or in Zn, Cu and Mn supplemented medium (MEM2) containing normal human plasma levels of the cations. SOD-1 and SOD-2 activities, however, underwent parallel progressive significant activity increases in senescent passage 20 and 25 cells, which peaked in value in passage 30 and 35 cells subcultured in supplemented medium (MEM3) containing triple human plasma levels of the cations. Concurrently, superoxide radical generation rates underwent progressive significant increases in senescent passage 15-25 cells, which peaked in value in passage 30 and 35 cells subcultured in MEM1 or MEM2. These rates, however, were significantly lowered in senescent cells subcultured in MEM3. We infer that it was only possible to significantly stimulate SOD-1 and SOD-2 activities in senescent MEM3 cultured cells enabling them to combat oxidative stress.Cell Biochemistry and Function 04/2011; 29(5):384-93. · 1.85 Impact Factor