Effects of zinc on hepatic antioxidant systems and the mRNA expression levels assayed by cDNA microarrays in rats
ABSTRACT This study evaluated effects of zinc on the hepatic lipid peroxidation, antioxidant components and mRNA expression levels in rats.
Three diets with different Zn levels including Zn adequacy (ZA; 34.50 mg/kg, control), Zn deficiency (ZD; 3.30 mg/kg), and Zn overdose (ZO; 345.45 mg/kg) were fed to rats for 6 weeks. The mRNA expression levels were analyzed by cDNA microarrays.
The body weight of rats fed the ZD diet was less (p < 0.01) than that of rats fed the ZA diet. Zn overdose elevated body weight, but the increase was not detected (p > 0.05) at week 6. Although copper and iron status in serum were declined (p < 0.01), those in liver were not affected (p > 0.05) by the high intake of zinc. The glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) remained unchanged (p > 0.05) by zinc treatment. Rats fed the ZD diet showed reductions(p < 0.01) in the Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, and increases (p < 0.01) in the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contents. Rats fed the ZO diet particularly had higher Cu-Zn SOD (p < 0.01) activity. The mRNA expression levels of SOD were upregulated in the ZO group, and CAT was downregulated in the ZD group, while no changes in GPx mRNA levels were found after zinc treatment.
The study suggested that zinc deficiency largely decreased body weight; zinc overdose, however, moderately stimulated growth in the early growing phase of rats. High dietary zinc did not compete with liver copper and iron status. Although Zn deficiency impaired antioxidant functions, zinc overdose hardly enhanced the antioxidant systems of animals.
- SourceAvailable from: Valerie Turcot[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Les prématurés subissent un stress oxydant qui résulte d’une défense antioxydante faible et/ou d’une charge oxydante. Des données suggèrent qu’un stress oxydant peut affecter le métabolisme énergétique et mener au syndrome métabolique. Hypothèse: Une faible défense antioxydante tôt dans la vie est suffisante pour affecter le métabolisme énergétique à long terme. Méthodes: Quatre groupes de cobayes (n=21) ont reçu entre leurs 3e et 7e jours de vie une diète standard (C-1sem, C-14sem) ou une diète déficiente (DC-1sem, DC-14sem). À 7 jours, les groupes C-1sem et DC-1sem ont été sacrifiés, le plasma et le foie collectés. Les groupes C-14sem et DC-14sem ont reçu la diète standard jusqu’à 14sem de vie. La glycémie et les triglycérides plasmatiques ont été mesurés à 1, 3, 11, et 13-14sem. La tolérance au glucose a été évaluée à 13sem. Les antioxydants hépatiques et les protéines régulant le métabolisme énergétique ont été analysés à 1 et 14sem. Résultats: Un statut redox oxydé du glutathion était associé avec la diète déficiente et était maintenu oxydé au moins jusqu’à 14sem (p<0.01). Les faibles niveaux de triglycérides plasmatiques et de glycémies, ainsi qu’une meilleure tolérance au glucose à 14sem (p<0.05) étaient associés avec un statut redox plus oxydé. Conclusion: Le faible taux de glutathion observé chez les prématurés a été reproduit dans notre modèle. Puisque nos données suggèrent un rôle protecteur d’un redox plus oxydé et que l’environnement redox est un important régulateur métabolique influençant le développement, il faudrait faire attention avant d’initier des traitements antioxydants agressifs chez les prématurés. Preterm infants are faced to oxidative stress resulting from a low antioxidant defence and/or a high oxidant load. Datas suggest that an oxidative stress may impair energy metabolism leading to metabolic syndrome development. Hypothesis: A weak antioxidant defence early in life such as observed in preterm newborns is sufficient to impair energy metabolism later in life. Methods: Four groups of guinea pigs (n=21) received between their 3rd and 7th days of life a control diet (C-1week, C-14weeks) or antioxidant deficient diet (DC-1week, DC-14weeks). At 7 day-old, 1week-groups were sacrificed for plasma and liver sampling whereas 14week-groups were fed with the control diet until 14 week-old. Blood glucose and plasma triacylglycerol were determined at 1, 3, 11 and 13-14 week-old. Glucose tolerance test was performed at 13 week-old. Hepatic antioxidant defences and key proteins regulating lipid and glucose metabolism were measured at 1 and 14 weeks. Results: The oxidized redox status of glutathione associated with the neonatal deficient diet was maintained until at least 14 week-old (p<0.01). The low plasma triacylglycerol, low blood glucose and better tolerance to glucose at 14 weeks (p<0.05) were associated with an oxidized redox status. Conclusion: The low glutathione observed in newborn preterm infants has been reproduced in our animal model. Since the oxidized redox state observed here seems to be protective against impaired energy metabolism and since the cellular redox environment is known to be an important rheostat of metabolism influencing development, it suggests being careful before adopting aggressive antioxidant treatments in preterm infants.
- Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2008; 67. DOI:10.1017/S0029665108000979 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zinc deficiency induces a striking reduction of food intake in animals. To elucidate the mechanisms for this effect, two studies were connectedly conducted to determine the effects of peripheral administration of zinc on food intake in rats fed the zinc-adequate or zinc-deficient diets for a 3-week period. In study 1, two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided diets made either adequate (ZA; 38.89 mg/kg) or deficient (ZD; 3.30 mg/kg) in zinc. In study 2, after feeding for 3 weeks, both ZA and ZD groups received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of zinc solution with three levels (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg zinc/g body weight, respectively) and cumulative food intake at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 h, and plasma hormones concentrations were measured. The results in study 1 showed rats fed the ZD diets revealed symptoms of zinc deficiency, such as sparse and coarse hair, poor appetite, susceptibility to surroundings, lethargy, and small movements. Zinc concentrations in serum, femur, and skeletal muscle of rats fed the ZD diets declined by 26.58% (P < 0.01), 27.32% (P < 0.01), and 24.22% (P < 0.05), respectively, as compared with ZA control group. These findings demonstrated that rat models with zinc deficiency and zinc adequacy had been fully established. The results in study 2 showed that IP administration of zinc in both ZA and ZD rats did not influence food intake at each time points (P > 0.05), although zinc deficiency suppressed food intake. Plasma neuropeptide Y (NPY) was higher, but insulin and glucagon were lower in response to zinc deficiency or zinc administration by contrast with their respective controls (P < 0.05). Leptin, T3, and T4 concentrations were uniformly decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the ZD diets in contrast to ZA diets; however, no differences (P > 0.05) were observed during zinc injection. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was unaffected (P > 0.05) by either zinc deficiency or zinc administration. The present studies suggested that zinc administration did not affect short-term food intake in rats even in the zinc-deficient ones; the reduced food intake induced by zinc deficiency was probably associated with the depression in thyroid hormones. The results also indicated that NPY and insulin varied conversely during the control of food intake.Biological Trace Element Research 04/2008; 124(2):144-56. DOI:10.1007/s12011-008-8132-9 · 1.61 Impact Factor