A novel synthetic oleanolic acid derivative with amino acid conjugate suppresses tumour growth by inducing cell cycle arrest.
ABSTRACT Oleanolic acid (3beta-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid; OA) has a wide variety of bioactivities and is used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries. Various derivatives of OA have been synthesized in attempts to improve the potency. Here we describe the anti-tumour activity of a novel OA derivative, N-[(3beta)-3-(acetyloxy)-28-oxoolean-12-en-28-yl]-glycine methyl ester (AOA-GMe). AOAGMe was a more potent inhibitor of the growth of B16 melanoma cells than its parent compound OA, both in-vitro and in-vivo. AOA-GMe also exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of human K562 leukaemia cells, but had almost no toxicity in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. AOA-GMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increases in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15. OA did not show such activities. These results suggest that AOA-GMe may induce growth arrest in tumour cells through regulation of proteins involved in the cell cycle.
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ABSTRACT: Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are ubiquitous triterpenoids in plant kingdom, medicinal herbs, and are integral part of the human diet. During the last decade over 700 research articles have been published on their research, reflecting tremendous interest and progress in our understanding of these triterpenoids. This included the isolation and purification of these tritepernoids from various plants and herbs, the chemical modifications to make more effective and water soluble derivatives, the pharmacological research on their beneficial effects, the toxicity studies, and the clinical use of these triterpenoids in various diseases including anticancer chemotherapies. A briefly commentary is attempted here for their research perspectives.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 09/2005; 100(1-2):92-4. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the past 20 years, numerous derivatives and analogues of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) were synthesized with the aim to generate a new type of anticancer drug. The common denominator of most cytotoxic polyamine analogues is their lipophilicity, which is superior to that of the parent amines. The natural polyamines bind to polyanions and to proteins with anionic binding sites. Their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity is balanced, allowing them to perform physiological functions by interacting with some of these anionic structures, without impairing the functionality of others. Because the attachment of lipophilic substituents to the polyamine backbone increases the binding energy, lipophilic polyamine derivatives affect secondary and tertiary structures of a larger number of macromolecules than do their natural counterparts. In addition, lipophilicity improves the blood-brain barrier transport and thus enhances CNS toxicity. Close structural analogues of spermidine and spermine mimic the natural polyamines in regulatory functions. The cytotoxic mechanisms of analogues with a less close structural resemblance to spermidine or spermine have not been completely clarified. The displacement of spermidine from functional binding sites and the consequent prevention of its physiological roles is a likely mechanism, but many others may play a role as well. Up to now, polyamine analogues were conceived without specific growth-related targets in mind. To develop therapeutically useful drugs, it will be imperative to identify specific targets and to design compounds that interact selectively with the target molecules. It will also be necessary to include, at an early state of the work, pharmacological and toxicological considerations, to avoid unproductive directions.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 08/2005; 107(1):99-119. · 7.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Betulinic acid has been coupled with a series of amino acids at C-28 carboxylic acid position and the toxicity of the derivatives has been evaluated against cultured human melanoma (MEL-2) and human epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth (KB) cell lines. A number of amino acid conjugates of betulinic acid showed improved water solubility as well as selective cytotoxicity. This investigation demonstrates that amino acid conjugates of betulinic acid can produce potentially important derivatives, which may be developed as antitumor agents.Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 05/1999; 9(8):1201-4. · 2.34 Impact Factor