Downregulation of myosin II-B by siRNA alters the subcellular localization of the amyloid precursor protein and increases amyloid-beta deposition in N2a cells.
ABSTRACT The Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain pathology is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides and intraneuronal fibrillar structures. These pathological features may be functionally linked, but the mechanism by which Abeta accumulation relates to neuronal degeneration is still poorly understood. Abeta peptides are fragments cleaved from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein ubiquitously expressed in the nervous system. Although the proteolytic processing of APP has been implicated in AD, the physiological function of APP and the subcellular site of APP cleavages remain unknown. The overall structure of the protein and its fast anterograde transport along the axon support the idea that APP functions as a vesicular receptor for cytoskeletal motor proteins. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that myosin II, important contributor to the cytoskeleton of neuronal cells, may influence the trafficking and/or the processing of APP. Our results demonstrate that downregulation of myosin II-B, the major myosin isoform in neurons, is able to increase Abeta deposition, concomitantly altering the subcellular localization of APP. These new insights might be important for the understanding of the function of APP and provide a novel conceptual framework in which to analyze its pathological role.
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ABSTRACT: Guidance cues and signal transduction mechanisms acting at the nerve growth cone are fairly well understood, but the intracellular mechanisms operating to change the direction of axon outgrowth remain unknown. We now show that growth cones integrate myosin II-dependent contraction for rapid, coordinated turning at borders of laminin stripes in response to signals from laminin-activated integrin receptors; in the absence of myosin II activity, outgrowth continues across the borders.Nature Neuroscience 07/2005; 8(6):717-9. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) treatment of monkey COS-7 cells, a cell line that lacks nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II-A (NMHC II-A) but contains NMHC II-B and II-C, was used to investigate the participation of NMHC isoforms in cytokinesis. We specifically suppressed the expression of NMHC II-B or II-C using 21 nucleotide small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes. Down-regulation of NMHC II-B protein expression to 10.2 +/- 0.7% inhibited COS-7 cell proliferation by 50% in the RNAi-treated cells compared with control cells. Moreover, whereas 8.7 +/- 1.0% of control cells were multinucleated, 62.4 +/- 8.8% of the NMHC II-B RNAi-treated cells were multinucleated 72 h after transfection. The RNAi-treated cells had increased surface areas and, unlike control cells, lacked actin stress fibers. Treatment of the COS-7 cells with NMHC II-C siRNA decreased NMHC II-C expression to 5.2 +/- 0.1% compared with the endogenous content of II-C; however, down-regulation of NMHC II-C did not cause increased multinucleation. Immunoblot analysis using a pan-myosin antibody showed that the content of NMHC II-C was less than one-twentieth the amount of NMHC II-B, thereby explaining the lack of response to II-C siRNA. Introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NMHC II isoforms into II-B siRNA-treated cells resulted in reduction of multinucleation from 62.4 +/- 8.8% to 17.8 +/- 2.2% using GFP-NMHC II-B, to 29.8 +/- 7.4% using GFP-NMHC II-A, and to 34.1 +/- 8.6% using NMHC II-C-GFP. These studies have shown that expression of endogenous NMHC II-C in COS-7 cells is insufficient for normal cytokinesis and that exogenous NMHC II-A and NMHC II-C can, at least partially, rescue the defect in cytokinesis due to the loss of NMHC II-B.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2005; 280(20):19594-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A human myosin heavy chain gene was identified in chromosome 19q13 by computational sequence analysis, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing of the cDNA. The complete cDNA has a length of 6786 bp and comprises 41 exons (40 coding) included in 108 kb of genomic sequence. Alternative splicing variants were also identified. The gene is expressed in a multitude of tissues, but mainly in small intestine, colon and skeletal muscle. The putative protein (228 kDa) carries the common myosin domains and presents high homology with the non-muscle myosin heavy chains (MYH9 and MYH10) as well as the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain MYH11. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analysis indicated that these homologous proteins are more related among themselves than to MYH14, suggesting that possibly this myosin heavy chain should be classified in a new myosin-subfamily.Gene 08/2003; 312:165-71. · 2.20 Impact Factor