Relationship between climate, disease severity, and causative organism for contact lens-associated microbial keratitis in Australia
ABSTRACT To evaluate associations between disease severity, causative organism, and climatic variation in contact lens-related microbial keratitis in Australia.
Prospective, observational case series.
Contact lens wearing patients (n = 236) with presumed microbial keratitis presenting to private and hospital ophthalmologists in Australia between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2004 were identified prospectively. Clinical details, management information, and microbiology data were collected and cases were graded for severity based on lesion size and location criteria. Causative organisms were assigned to "environmental" or "endogenous" groups. Climate zone and daytime temperature and humidity were determined for the geographic location of each event. The main outcome measures were disease severity, causative organism, and climate zone.
Severe contact lens-related microbial keratitis was more likely to occur in warmer, humid regions of the country (P < .001), compared with smaller, increasingly peripheral corneal lesions that were more common in cooler conditions (P < .001). Culture-proven keratitis was predominantly caused by environmental organisms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being recovered most frequently. Environmental organisms were isolated more commonly from tropical regions of the country and also accounted for nearly all cases of vision loss that occurred during the study period. Humidity did not have a significant effect on causative organism.
Climatic conditions play a role in disease severity and causative organism in contact lens-related microbial keratitis and therefore have implications for practitioners involved in contact lens care and contact lens wearers who live in or travel to the tropics.
SourceAvailable from: Mohammad Montazeri[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Microbial keratitis is an infective process of the cornea with a potentially and serious visual im-pairments. Contact lenses are a major cause of microbial keratitis in the developed countries especially among young people. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and microbiological characteristic of CLK in patients referred to the emergency department (ED) of teaching hospitals, Babol, Iran. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of all patients with contact lens induced corneal ulcers admitted to the teaching hospitals of Babol, Iran, from 2011-2013. An ophthalmologist examined patients with the slit-lamp and clinical features of them were noted (including pain, redness, foreign body sensation, chemosis, epiphora, blurred vision, discomfort, photophobia, discharge, ocular redness and swelling). All suspected infectious corneal ulcers were scraped for microbial culture and two slides were prepared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, ver-sion 18.0. Results: A total of 14 patients (17 eyes) were recruited into the study (100% female). The patients' age ranged from 16-37 years old (mean age 21.58±7.23 years). The most prevalent observed clinical signs were pain and redness. Three samples reported as sterile. The most common isolated causative organism was pseudomonas aeroginosa (78.6%), Staphylococcus aureus 14.3%, and enterobacter 7.1%, respectively. Treatment outcome was excellent in 23.5%, good in 47.1%, and poor in 29.4% of cases. Conclusion: Improper lens wear and care as well as the lack of awareness about the importance of aftercare visits have been identified as potential risk factors for the corneal ulcer among contact lens wearers. Training and increasing the awareness of adequate lens care and disinfection practices, consulting with an ophthalmologist, and frequent replacement of contact lens storage cases would greatly help reducing the risk of microbial keratitis.Emergency 10/2014; 2(4):174-77.
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ABSTRACT: The clone library method using PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was used to identify pathogens from corneal scrapings of C57BL/6-corneal opacity (B6-Co) mice with bacterial keratitis. All 10 samples from the eyes with bacterial keratitis showed positive PCR results. All 10 samples from the normal cornea showed negative PCR results. In all 10 PCR-positive samples, the predominant and second most predominant species accounted for 20.9% to 40.6% and 14.7% to 26.1%, respectively, of each clone library. The predominant species were Staphylococcus lentus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The microbiota analysis detected a diverse group of microbiota in the eyes of B6-Co mice with bacterial keratitis and showed that the causative pathogens could be determined based on percentages of bacterial species in the clone libraries. The bacterial species detected in this study were mostly in accordance with results of studies on clinical bacterial keratitis in human eyes. Based on the results of our previous studies and this study, the B6-Co mouse should be considered a favorable model for studying bacterial keratitis.Experimental Animals 10/2014; 64(1). DOI:10.1538/expanim.14-0046 · 1.17 Impact Factor