Immunological patterns in young children with Down syndrome: is there a temporal trend?
ABSTRACT Down syndrome is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections due to a deficiency of both specific and nonspecific immunity.
The aim of the study was to analyze the temporal trends, if any, of some variables related to the immunological status of children affected by Down syndrome.
Heparinized blood samples were obtained by venipuncture in 30 children with Down syndrome, who were regularly followed in our department and analyzed for hematologic values, lymphocyte subpopulations, immunoglobulin dosage and zinc level. Results were compared with those of the normal population.
In the first 5 years of life, we observed a progressive decrease in the medium values of lymphocytes, CD4(+) and plasma zinc levels, and an increase in CD8(+), immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M and natural killer, but generally without exceeding the interval of normality.
In Down syndrome children, the immune cellular status is similar to the normal population as far as white blood cell, lymphocyte, CD4(+), CD8(+), natural killer and immunoglobulins are concerned. Plasma level of zinc is normal from birth until 5 years but with a temporal trend of progressive reduction. This observation supports the hypothesis that a pharmacological supplementation may be necessary in Down syndrome children only after 5 years of age.
- SourceAvailable from: Dragica PesutBalkan Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2010; 13(1):59-62. · 0.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children with Down syndrome (DS) experience respiratory tract infections (RTIs) more frequently than healthy children. We investigated whether this is related to different immunological characteristics associated with DS. The study group consisted of 22 children with DS and 22 of their healthy, age-range matched siblings. Data were collected on infections and hospitalizations because of lower RTIs. Immunoglobulin and IgG subclass levels in blood, as well as lymphocyte and T cell (subset) counts, were determined. The children with DS had a significantly higher frequency of lower RTIs and related hospitalization than their siblings. We also found significantly reduced IgG2 levels as well as significantly lower counts of total lymphocytes, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD4(+) invariant natural killer (iNKT) cells and regulatory T cells in the DS group. In children with DS, reduced levels of IgG2, total lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, iNKT cells and regulatory T cells might contribute to their higher susceptibility to lower RTIs.Acta Paediatrica 05/2012; 101(8):862-7. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have a high incidence of immunological alterations with increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections and high frequency of different types of hematologic malignancies and autoimmune disorders. In the current study, we profiled the expression pattern of 92 immune-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of two different groups, children with DS and control children, to identify differentially expressed genes that might be of pathogenetic importance for the development and phenotype of the immunological alterations observed in individuals with DS. PBMCs samples were obtained from six DS individuals with karyotypically confirmed full trisomy 21 and six healthy control individuals (ages 2-6 years). Gene expression was profiled in duplicate according to the manufacturer's instructions provided by commercially available TaqMan Human Immune Array representing 92 immune function genes and four reference genes on a 96-plex gene card. A set of 17 differentially expressed genes, not located on chromosome 21 (HSA21), involved in immune and inflammatory pathways was identified including 13 genes (BCL2, CCL3, CCR7, CD19, CD28, CD40, CD40LG, CD80, EDN1, IKBKB, IL6, NOS2 and SKI) significantly down-regulated and four genes (BCL2L1, CCR2, CCR5 and IL10) significantly up-regulated in children with DS. These findings highlight a list of candidate genes for further investigation into the molecular mechanism underlying DS pathology and reinforce the secondary effects of the presence of a third copy of HSA21.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107218. · 3.53 Impact Factor