Apoptotic signal transduction and T cell tolerance.
ABSTRACT The healthy immune system makes use of a variety of surveillance mechanisms at different stages of lymphoid development to prevent the occurrence and expansion of potentially harmful autoreactive T cell clones. Disruption of these mechanisms may lead to inappropriate activation of T cells and the development of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases [such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, diabetes and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)]. Clonal deletion of T cells with high affinities for self-peptide-MHC via programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an essential mechanism leading to self-tolerance. Referred to as negative selection, central tolerance in the thymus serves as the first checkpoint for the developing T cell repertoire and involves the apoptotic elimination of potentially autoreactive T cells clones bearing high affinity T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize autoantigens presented by thymic epithelial cells. Autoreactive T cells that escape negative selection are held in check in the periphery by either functional inactivation ("anergy") or extrathymic clonal deletion, both of which are dependent on the strength and frequency of the TCR signal and the costimulatory context, or by regulatory T cells. This review provides an overview of the different molecular executioners of cell death programs that are vital to intrathymic or extrathymic clonal deletion of T cells. Further, the potential involvement of various apoptotic signaling paradigms are discussed with respect to the genesis and pathophysiology of autoimmune disease.
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ABSTRACT: It has long been known that apoptosis is vital to the generation and maintenance of proper adaptive immune function. An example is the essential requirement for apoptotic signaling during the generation of self-tolerant lymphocytes: the apoptotic death of B and T cells with overt autoreactivity is essential to central tolerance. More recently, the contributions of additional processes including cellular autophagy and programmed necrosis have been implicated in controlling both innate and adaptive immune functions. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that the death of cells following ligation of death receptors (DRs), a subfamily of cell surface molecules related to tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, is not exclusively the domain of caspase-dependent apoptosis. In cells lacking the capacity to activate caspase-8 following DR ligation, cell death instead occurs via programmed necrosis, or as it has been recently termed, 'necroptosis'. This death process depends on RIP1 and RIP3, serine/threonine kinases that are recruited by DRs, and likely by other cellular signals including DNA damage and antigen receptor ligation. The generation of RIP1/RIP3 containing 'necrosomes' activates downstream necroptotic signaling that ultimately targets cellular energetic metabolism. Also related to cellular metabolic regulation, cellular autophagy has also been found to play unique and important roles in immunity. In this review, we describe the roles of necroptosis and autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity and speculate on the intriguing interplay between these two cellular processes.Immunological Reviews 09/2012; 249(1):205-17. · 12.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is recognized now that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which do not have unique 3D structures as a whole or in noticeable parts, constitute a significant fraction of any given proteome. IDPs are characterized by an astonishing structural and functional diversity that defines their ability to be universal regulators of various cellular pathways. Programmed cell death (PCD) is one of the most intricate cellular processes where the cell uses specialized cellular machinery and intracellular programs to kill itself. This cell-suicide mechanism enables metazoans to control cell numbers and to eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival. PCD includes several specific modules, such as apoptosis, autophagy, and programmed necrosis (necroptosis). These modules are not only tightly regulated but also intimately interconnected and are jointly controlled via a complex set of protein-protein interactions. To understand the role of the intrinsic disorder in controlling and regulating the PCD, several large sets of PCD-related proteins across 28 species were analyzed using a wide array of modern bioinformatics tools. This study indicates that the intrinsic disorder phenomenon has to be taken into consideration to generate a complete picture of the interconnected processes, pathways, and modules that determine the essence of the PCD. We demonstrate that proteins involved in regulation and execution of PCD possess substantial amount of intrinsic disorder. We annotate functional roles of disorder across and within apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis processes. Disordered regions are shown to be implemented in a number of crucial functions, such as protein-protein interactions, interactions with other partners including nucleic acids and other ligands, are enriched in post-translational modification sites, and are characterized by specific evolutionary patterns. We mapped the disorder into an integrated network of PCD pathways and into the interactomes of selected proteins that are involved in the p53-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 14 June 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.65.Cell death and differentiation 06/2013; · 8.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T lymphocytes from the immune system are bone marrow-derived cells whose development and activities are carefully supervised by two sets of accessory cells. In the thymus, the immature young T lymphocytes are engulfed by epithelial "nurse cells" and retained in vacuoles, where most of them (95%) are negatively selected and removed when they have an incomplete development or express high affinity autoreactive receptors. The mature T lymphocytes that survive to this selection process leave the thymus and are controlled in the periphery by another subpopulation of accessory cells called "regulatory cells," which reduce any excessive immune response and the risk of collateral injuries to healthy tissues. By different times and procedures, nurse cells and regulatory cells control both the development and the functions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Disorders in the T lymphocytes development and migration have been observed in some parasitic diseases, which disrupt the thymic microenvironment of nurse cells. In other cases, parasites stimulate rather than depress the functions of regulatory T cells decreasing T-mediated host damages. This paper is a short review regarding some features of these accessory cells and their main interactions with T immature and mature lymphocytes. The modulatory role that neurotransmitters and hormones play in these interactions is also revised.BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:352414.