Multiple paths to loss of anergy and gain of autoimmunity.
ABSTRACT B cells and autoimmunity: cells of the immune system have the capacity to recognize/neutralize a myriad array of disease-causing pathogens, while simultaneously minimizing damage to self tissue. Obvious breakdowns in this ability to distinguish between self and non-self are evident in multiple forms of autoimmune disease, where B and T cells mount damaging attacks on cells and organs. B cells may directly damage tissue by producing pathogenic antibodies that bind self antigen, fix complement or form immune complexes. Recent evidence also suggests B cells indirectly induce autoimmunity by concentrating low avidity self antigen through the B cell receptor and presenting self-peptides to autoreactive T cells. B cells may also initiate autoimmunity when provided sufficient help from autoreactive T cells that have escaped deletion in the thymus. Here, we will review the role of anergy in maintenance of tolerance and how alterations in the normal balance of positive and negative signals may contribute to the development of autoimmune disease in mouse models and humans.
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ABSTRACT: Inhibitory co-receptors downmodulate B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling by setting a signalling threshold that prevents overstimulation of B cells. Activation of these inhibitory co-receptors occurs by phosphorylation on their cytoplasmic inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs), followed by recruitment of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 or the lipid phosphatase SHIP, and depends on their association with the BCR. Recent evidence shows that B-cell signal inhibition is regulated by ligand binding of inhibitory receptors.Current Opinion in Immunology 07/2005; 17(3):290-7. · 8.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell activation results from the transient displacement of an active balance between positive and negative signaling. This displacement depends in part on the engagement of cell surface receptors by extracellular ligands. Among these are receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins (FcRs). FcRs are widely expressed by cells of hematopoietic origin. When binding antibodies, FcRs provide these cells with immunoreceptors capable of triggering numerous biological responses in response to a specific antigen. FcR-dependent cell activation is regulated by negative signals which are generated together with positive signals within signalosomes that form upon FcR engagement. Many molecules involved in positive signaling, including the FcRbeta subunit, the src kinase lyn, the cytosolic adapter Grb2, and the transmembrane adapters LAT and NTAL, are indeed also involved in negative signaling. A major player in negative regulation of FcR signaling is the inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1. Several layers of negative regulation operate sequentially as FcRs are engaged by extracellular ligands with an increasing valency. A background protein tyrosine phosphatase-dependent negative regulation maintains cells in a "resting" state. SHIP1-dependent negative regulation can be detected as soon as high-affinity FcRs are occupied by antibodies in the absence of antigen. It increases when activating FcRs are engaged by multivalent ligands and, further, when FcR aggregation increases, accounting for the bell-shaped dose-response curve observed in excess of ligand. Finally, F-actin skeleton-associated high-molecular weight SHIP1, recruited to phosphorylated ITIMs, concentrates in signaling complexes when activating FcRs are coengaged with inhibitory FcRs by immune complexes. Based on these data, activating and inhibitory FcRs could be used for new therapeutic approaches to immune disorders.Advances in Immunology 02/2006; 89:39-86. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are hyperactive and produce anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) autoantibodies. The cause or causes of B cell defects in SLE are unknown. In this study, we determined the level and subcellular distribution of Lyn protein, a key negative regulator of B cell receptor signaling, and assessed whether altered Lyn expression is characteristic of B cells in the setting of SLE. Negative selection was used to isolate B lymphocytes from blood. Lipid raft signaling domains were purified from B cells obtained from 62 patients with SLE, 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 31 healthy controls, by gradient ultracentrifugation. The total Lyn protein level was determined by Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and fluorescein-activated cell sorting (FACS). The distribution of Lyn into lipid raft and nonlipid raft domains was determined by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Lyn content in B cell subpopulations was determined by FACS. In order to assess B lymphocyte activity, we used (3)H-thymidine incorporation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure spontaneous proliferation and IgG and cytokine production by B cells. This study revealed that B lymphocytes from a majority of patients with SLE have a reduced level of Lyn and manifest altered translocation to lipid rafts. An investigation into the mechanisms of Lyn reduction suggested that increased ubiquitination is involved. This was evident from increased ubiquitination of Lyn and translocation of c-Cbl into lipid rafts. Studies of B cell responses showed that altered Lyn expression was associated with heightened spontaneous proliferation, anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, and increased interleukin-10 production. This study provides evidence for altered Lyn expression in B cells from a majority of patients with SLE. Altered Lyn expression in SLE may influence the B cell receptor signaling and B cell hyperactivity that are characteristic of the disease.Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2006; 52(12):3955-65. · 7.48 Impact Factor