Multiple paths to loss of anergy and gain of autoimmunity.
ABSTRACT B cells and autoimmunity: cells of the immune system have the capacity to recognize/neutralize a myriad array of disease-causing pathogens, while simultaneously minimizing damage to self tissue. Obvious breakdowns in this ability to distinguish between self and non-self are evident in multiple forms of autoimmune disease, where B and T cells mount damaging attacks on cells and organs. B cells may directly damage tissue by producing pathogenic antibodies that bind self antigen, fix complement or form immune complexes. Recent evidence also suggests B cells indirectly induce autoimmunity by concentrating low avidity self antigen through the B cell receptor and presenting self-peptides to autoreactive T cells. B cells may also initiate autoimmunity when provided sufficient help from autoreactive T cells that have escaped deletion in the thymus. Here, we will review the role of anergy in maintenance of tolerance and how alterations in the normal balance of positive and negative signals may contribute to the development of autoimmune disease in mouse models and humans.
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ABSTRACT: Ca(2+) acts ubiquitously as a second messenger in transmembrane signal transduction. In lymphocytes, calcium mobilization is triggered by antigen and chemokine receptors, among others, and controls cell functions ranging from proliferation to migration. The primary mechanism of extracellular Ca(2+) entry in lymphocytes is the CRAC influx. STIM1 is a crucial component of the CRAC influx mechanism in lymphocytes, acting as a sensor of low Ca(2+) concentration in the ER and an activator of the Ca(2+) selective channel ORAI1 in the plasma membrane. While STIM1 function has been studied extensively, little is known regarding whether it is differentially expressed and thereby affects the magnitude of calcium mobilization responses. We report here that STIM1 expression differs in murine T and B lymphocytes, and in respective subsets. For example, mature T cells express ∼4 times more STIM1 than mature B cells. Furthermore, we show that through the physiologic range of expression, STIM1 levels determine the magnitude of Ca(2+) influx responses that follow BCR-induced intracellular store depletion. Considered in view of previous reports that differences in amplitude of lymphocyte Ca(2+) mobilization determine alternate biological responses, these findings suggest that differential STIM1 expression may be important determinant of biological responses.Molecular Immunology 06/2011; 48(15-16):1851-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: B cells play a critical role in the initialization and development of the systemic lupus erythematosus that is dependent on the expression of the endosomal ssRNA receptor TLR7. Previous studies have established that B cell expression of TLR7 is controlled by the type I IFN secreted by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In this article, we report that VISA, also known as MAVS, IPS-1, and CardIf, essential for RIG-I/MDA5-mediated signaling following sensing of cytosolic RNA, regulate B cell expression of TLR7 and CD23. We found that B cells from a VISA(-/-) mouse express reduced TLR7 but normal basal levels of type I IFN. We also show that although IFN-β and TLR7 agonists synergize to promote TLR7 expression in VISA(-/-) B cells, they do not fully complement the defect seen in VISA(-/-) cells. Cell transfer experiments revealed that the observed effects of VISA(-/-) are B cell intrinsic. The reduced TLR7 expression in B cells is correlated with impaired TLR7 agonist-induced upregulation of activation markers CD69 and CD86, cell proliferation, production of IFN-α, TNF, and IL-12, and NF-κB activation. Finally, studies indicate that genetic background may influence the observed phenotype of our VISA(-/-) mice, because VISA(-/-) B cells differ in CD23 and TLR7 expression when on C57BL/6 versus 129Sv-C57BL/6 background. Thus, our findings suggest an unexpected link between VISA-mediated cytosolic RLR signaling and autoimmunity.The Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 188(1):248-58. · 5.52 Impact Factor
- Free Radical Biology and Medicine - FREE RADICAL BIOL MED. 01/2011; 51.