Rigid-rod anion-pi slides for multiion hopping across lipid bilayers.
ABSTRACT Shape-persistent oligo-p-phenylene-N,N-naphthalenediimide (O-NDI) rods are introduced as anion-pi slides for chloride-selective multiion hopping across lipid bilayers. Results from end-group engineering and covalent capture as O-NDI hairpins suggested that self-assembly into transmembrane O-NDI bundles is essential for activity. A halide topology VI (Cl > F > Br approximately I, Cl/Br approximately Cl/I > 7) implied strong anion binding along the anion-pi slides with relatively weak contributions from size exclusion (F >or= OAc). Anomalous mole fraction effects (AMFE) supported the occurrence of multiion hopping along the pi-acidic O-NDI rods. The existence of anion-pi interactions was corroborated by high-level ab initio and DFT calculations. The latter revealed positive NDI quadrupole moments far beyond the hexafluorobenzene standard. Computational studies further suggested that anion binding occurs at the confined, pi-acidic edges of the sticky NDI surface and is influenced by the nature of the phenyl spacer between two NDIs. With regard to methods development, a detailed analysis of the detection of ion selectivity with the HPTS assay including AMFE in vesicles is provided.
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ABSTRACT: Attractive in theory and confirmed to exist, anion-pi interactions have never really been seen at work. To catch them in action, we prepared a collection of monomeric, cyclic and rod-shaped naphthalenediimide transporters. Their ability to exert anion-pi interactions was demonstrated by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in combination with theoretical calculations. To relate this structural evidence to transport activity in bilayer membranes, affinity and selectivity sequences were recorded. pi-acidification and active-site decrowding increased binding, transport and chloride > bromide > iodide selectivity, and supramolecular organization inverted acetate > nitrate to nitrate > acetate selectivity. We conclude that anion-pi interactions on monomeric surfaces are ideal for chloride recognition, whereas their supramolecular enhancement by pi,pi-interactions appears perfect to target nitrate. Chloride transporters are relevant to treat channelopathies, and nitrate sensors to monitor cellular signaling and cardiovascular diseases. A big impact on organocatalysis can be expected from the stabilization of anionic transition states on chiral pi-acidic surfaces.Nature Chemistry 07/2010; 2(7):533-8. · 20.52 Impact Factor