Rho-kinase inhibition blunts renal vasoconstriction induced by distinct signaling pathways in vivo.
ABSTRACT In addition to intracellular calcium, which activates myosin light chain (MLC) kinase, MLC phosphorylation and hence contraction is importantly regulated by MLC phosphatase (MLCP). Recent evidence suggests that distinct signaling cascades of vasoactive hormones interact with the Rho/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway, affecting the activity of MLCP. The present study measured the impact of ROK inhibition on vascular F-actin distribution and on vasoconstriction induced by activation/inhibition of distinct signaling pathways in vivo in the microcirculation of the split hydronephrotic rat kidney. Local application of the ROK inhibitors Y-27632 or HA-1077 induced marked dilation of pre- and postglomerular vessels. Activation of phospholipase C with the endothelin ET B agonist IRL 1620, inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), or inhibition of adenylyl cyclase with the adenosine A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) reduced glomerular blood flow (GBF) by about 50% through vasoconstriction at different vascular levels. ROK inhibition with Y-27632 or HA-1077, but not protein kinase C inhibition with Ro 31-8220, blunted ET B-induced vasoconstriction. Furthermore, the reduction of GBF and of vascular diameters in response to ODQ or CPA were abolished by pretreatment with Y-27632. ROK inhibitors prevented constriction of preglomerular vessels and of efferent arterioles with equal effectiveness. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Y-27632 did not change F-actin content and distribution in renal vessels. The results suggest that ROK inhibition might be considered as a potent treatment of renal vasoconstriction, because it interferes with constriction induced by distinct signaling pathways in renal vessels without affecting F-actin structure.
Article: Optimization of hypolipidemic and antiplatelet treatment in the diabetic patient with renal disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Because diabetes confers a very high risk of cardiovascular morbility and mortality, an aggressive hypolipidemic and antiplatelet treatment has been strongly recommended in the whole diabetic population. In particular, patients who have diabetes should be considered in "secondary prevention" even before presenting cardiovascular events, because diabetes is a "coronary heart disease equivalent." Furthermore, because renal failure is a cardiovascular risk factor per se, patients with diabetes and renal disease present an even greater risk for atherosclerotic vascular events and should be treated even more intensively with hypolipidemic and antiaggregating drugs: the presence of renal impairment does not justify a nihilist therapeutical approach, even if appropriate cautions are mandatory. Finally, dyslipidemia contributes to the deterioration of renal function, a phenomenon potentially prevented by hypolipidemic therapy.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2004; 15 Suppl 1:S12-20. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Rho-kinase inhibition improves vasodilator responsiveness during hyperinsulinemia in the metabolic syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), the facilitatory effect of insulin on forearm vasodilator responsiveness to different stimuli is impaired. Whether the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway is involved in this abnormality is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that, in MetS patients, ROCK inhibition with fasudil restores insulin-stimulated vasodilator reactivity and that oxidative stress plays a role in this mechanism. Endothelium-dependent and -independent forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were assessed in MetS patients (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 5) before and after the addition of fasudil (200 μg/min) to an intra-arterial infusion of insulin (0.1 mU/kg/min). In MetS patients (n = 5), fasudil was also infused without hyperinsulinemia. The possible involvement of oxidative stress in the effect of fasudil during hyperinsulinemia was investigated in MetS patients (n = 5) by infusing vitamin C (25 mg/min). In MetS patients, compared with saline, fasudil enhanced endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator responses during insulin infusion (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively), but not in the absence of hyperinsulinemia (P = 0.25 and P = 0.13, respectively). By contrast, fasudil did not affect vasoreactivity to ACh and SNP during hyperinsulinemia in controls (P = 0.11 and P = 0.56, respectively). In MetS patients, fasudil added to insulin and vitamin C did not further enhance vasodilation to ACh and SNP (P = 0.15 and P = 0.43, respectively). In the forearm circulation of patients with the MetS, ROCK inhibition by fasudil improves endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator responsiveness during hyperinsulinemia; increased oxidative stress seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of this phenomenon.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2012; 303(6):E806-11. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelin (ET) peptides and their receptors are intimately involved in the physiological control of systemic blood pressure and body Na homeostasis, exerting these effects through alterations in a host of circulating and local factors. Hormonal systems affected by ET include natriuretic peptides, aldosterone, catecholamines, and angiotensin. ET also directly regulates cardiac output, central and peripheral nervous system activity, renal Na and water excretion, systemic vascular resistance, and venous capacitance. ET regulation of these systems is often complex, sometimes involving opposing actions depending on which receptor isoform is activated, which cells are affected, and what other prevailing factors exist. A detailed understanding of this system is important; disordered regulation of the ET system is strongly associated with hypertension and dysregulated extracellular fluid volume homeostasis. In addition, ET receptor antagonists are being increasingly used for the treatment of a variety of diseases; while demonstrating benefit, these agents also have adverse effects on fluid retention that may substantially limit their clinical utility. This review provides a detailed analysis of how the ET system is involved in the control of blood pressure and Na homeostasis, focusing primarily on physiological regulation with some discussion of the role of the ET system in hypertension.Physiological Reviews 01/2011; 91(1):1-77. · 26.87 Impact Factor