Reflective listening in counseling: effects of training time and evaluator social skills.
ABSTRACT Psychology students received a 14-, 28-, or 42-hour training course in reflective listening. Before and after training, the students participated in role-played counseling conversations with confederates, who rated them. The conversations were captured on audio- or videotape, categorized, and rated by external evaluators. Results suggested that the students used reflective listening equally after different lengths of training. However, longer training resulted in the confederates disclosing more emotion, the psychology students remembering the information relayed better, and the evaluators perceiving the therapeutic relationship as better. This was especially true among the evaluators who self-reported high social skills.
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ABSTRACT: The increase of the proportion of elderly people has implications for health care services. Advances in oral health care and treatment have resulted in a reduced number of edentulous individuals. An increasing number of dentate elderly people have tooth wear, periodontal disease, oral implants, and sophisticated restorations and prostheses. Hence, they are in need of both preventive and curative oral health care continuously. Weakened oral health due to neglect of self care and professional care and due to reduced oral health care utilization is already present when elderly people are still community-dwelling. At the moment of (residential) care home admittance, many elderly people are in need of oral health care urgently. The key factor in realizing and maintaining good oral health is daily oral hygiene care. For proper daily oral hygiene care, many residents are dependent on nurses and nurse aides. In 2007, the Dutch guideline "Oral health care in (residential) care homes for elderly people" was developed. Previous implementation research studies have revealed that implementation of a guideline is very complicated. The overall aim of this study is to compare a supervised versus a non-supervised implementation of the guideline in The Netherlands and Flanders (Belgium). The study is a cluster randomized intervention trial with an institution as unit of randomization. A random sample of 12 (residential) care homes accommodating somatic as well as psycho-geriatric residents in The Netherlands as well as in Flanders (Belgium) are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. Representative samples of 30 residents in each of the 24 (residential) care homes are monitored during a 6-months period. The intervention consists of supervised implementation of the guideline and a daily oral health care protocol. Primary outcome variable is the oral hygiene level of the participating residents. To determine the stimulating or inhibiting factors of the implementation project and the nurses' and nurse aides' compliance and perceived barriers, a process evaluation is carried out. The method of cluster randomization may result in a random effect and cluster selection bias, which has to be taken into account when analyzing and interpreting the results. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN86156614.BMC Oral Health 07/2010; 10:17. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-10-17 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background To ensure optimal patient care, physicians must establish effective patient-physician relationships and thoughtfully incorporate their patients’ perspectives into their counseling. Historically, these skills are acquired with increasing clinical experience. However, given increasing work-hour restrictions, OB/GYN residents have fewer opportunities to develop these skills. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if an interactive learning method is an effective tool by which to teach OB/GYN residents how to communicate with complicated patients. Methods An experiential simulation model was developed to teach OB/GYN residents effective communication skills for dealing with patients experiencing a pregnancy-related complication. A simulated patient interaction was designed for first-year residents. Specific scenarios were constructed based on challenging clinical scenarios identified by second-year residents. Non-judgmental communication, culture competency awareness and reflective listening were key skills that were taught as part of the clinical scenarios. Both acceptability and utility of the exercise with the first-years was assessed by a follow-up survey. Results Seven first-year residents participated in the education session consisting of four physician-patient interactions with specific learning objectives for each. These first-year residents all indicated that they would employ the skills practiced during the intervention into their future practice of medicine, and that their comfort level in caring for complex obstetric patients had increased. Moreover, all first-year residents endorsed that this educational strategy was potentially applicable to other aspects of their training. Conclusions Simulated patient exercises can be utilized in multiple arenas to teach OB/GYN residents communication skills, while simultaneously addressing their clinical knowledge deficits. Early implementation of such a curriculum in an OB/GYN residency will lay the foundation for the development of empathetic and culturally competent physicians.BMC Research Notes 07/2014; 7(1):455. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-455