Article

Disparities in obesity rates: analysis by ZIP code area.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
Social Science [?] Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.56). 01/2008; 65(12):2458-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Obesity in the United States has been linked to individual income and education. Less is known about its geographic distribution. The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity rates in King County, Washington State, at the ZIP code scale were associated with area-based measures of socioeconomic status and wealth. Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. At the ZIP code scale, crude obesity rates varied six-fold. In a model adjusting for covariates and spatial dependence, property values were the strongest predictor of the area-based smoothed obesity prevalence. Geocoding of health data provides new insights into the nature of social determinants of health. Disparities in obesity rates by ZIP code area were greater than disparities associated with individual income or race/ethnicity.

2 Followers
 · 
332 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Community development seeks to address the consequences of poverty through initiatives that improve housing, economic opportunity, service availability, and community capacity. There is growing recognition that the fields of community development and public health have much in common with regard to target populations, objectives, and challenges. Individual and neighborhood-level poverty are well-documented risk factors for illness and premature death. But relatively few developers systematically analyze how their projects could affect the health of the target community. Tools and metrics that facilitate incorporating health into planning, financing, and implementing new community development projects and programs will foster more widespread and productive collaboration between these two fields. We propose a simple framework to facilitate the identification and measurement of potential health effects, actions to optimize anticipated positive impacts, and strategies to mitigate potential negative impacts. The framework is drawn from an analysis of health impact assessments and includes four elements: identifying the health status of the population served, considering neighborhood-level influences on health, building design features important to health, and incorporating community engagement and capacity-building activities into the initiative.
    Health Affairs 11/2014; 33(11):1939-47. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0632 · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Longitudinal studies of the role of community context in childhood obesity are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine associations of community socio economic deprivation (CSD) with trajectories of change in body mass index (BMI) in childhood and adolescence.Methods Data came from electronic health records on 163,473 children aged 3-18 residing in 1,288 communities in Pennsylvania whose weight and height were measured longitudinally. CSD at the year of birth was measured using six US Census variables and modeled in quartiles. Trajectories of BMI within CSD quartiles were estimated using random effects growth-curve models accounting for differences by age, sex, and race/ethnicity as well as correcting for non-constant residual variance across age groups.ResultsCSD was associated with higher BMI at average age (10.7 years) and with more rapid growth of BMI over time. Children born in communities with greater CSD had steeper increases of BMI at younger ages. Those born into the poorest communities displayed sustained accelerated BMI growth. CSD remained associated with BMI trajectories after adjustment for a measure of household socio economic deprivation.Conclusions Higher CSD may be associated with more obesogenic growth trajectories in early life. Findings suggest that individual-level interventions that ignore the effect of community context on obesity-related behaviors may be less efficient.
    Obesity 01/2015; 23(1). DOI:10.1002/oby.20903 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.•There is greater prevalence among senior adults and non-Hispanic Blacks.•Results show older Blacks utilize lower levels of care despite Medicare enrollment.•By recognizing spatial patterns, targeted groups can be reached more effectively.
    Applied Geography 12/2014; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.apgeog.2014.09.017 · 3.08 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
72 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014