Antioxidant status and circulating lipids are altered in human gestational diabetes and macrosomia.
ABSTRACT Fetuses from mothers with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing neonatal macrosomia and oxidative stress. We investigated the modulation of antioxidant status and circulating lipids in gestational diabetic mothers and their macrosomic babies and in healthy age-matched pregnant women and their newborns. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by employing anti-radical resistance kit (KRL; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France) and determining levels of vitamin A, C, and E and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Circulating serum lipids were quantified, and lipid peroxidation was measured as the concentrations of serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). As compared with non-diabetic mothers, gestational diabetic women exhibited decreased levels of vitamin E and enhanced concentrations of vitamin C without any changes in vitamin A. Vitamin A and C levels did not change in macrosomic babies except vitamin E whose levels were lower in these infants than in the newborns of non-diabetic mothers. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia were also associated with impaired SOD activities and enhanced TBARS levels. Globally, total serum antioxidant defense status in diabetic mothers and their macrosomic babies was diminished as compared with control subjects. Triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations did not differ significantly between gestational diabetic and control mothers; however, macrosomia was associated with enhanced plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These results suggest that human GDM and macrosomia are associated with downregulation of antioxidant status, and macrosomic infants also exhibit altered lipid metabolism.