Antioxidant status and circulating lipids are altered in human gestational diabetes and macrosomia

Department of Physiology and Functional Explorations, Farhat Hached University Hospital, 4000 Sousse, Tunisia.
Translational Research (Impact Factor: 5.03). 10/2007; 150(3):164-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2007.03.007
Source: PubMed


Fetuses from mothers with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing neonatal macrosomia and oxidative stress. We investigated the modulation of antioxidant status and circulating lipids in gestational diabetic mothers and their macrosomic babies and in healthy age-matched pregnant women and their newborns. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by employing anti-radical resistance kit (KRL; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France) and determining levels of vitamin A, C, and E and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Circulating serum lipids were quantified, and lipid peroxidation was measured as the concentrations of serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). As compared with non-diabetic mothers, gestational diabetic women exhibited decreased levels of vitamin E and enhanced concentrations of vitamin C without any changes in vitamin A. Vitamin A and C levels did not change in macrosomic babies except vitamin E whose levels were lower in these infants than in the newborns of non-diabetic mothers. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and macrosomia were also associated with impaired SOD activities and enhanced TBARS levels. Globally, total serum antioxidant defense status in diabetic mothers and their macrosomic babies was diminished as compared with control subjects. Triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations did not differ significantly between gestational diabetic and control mothers; however, macrosomia was associated with enhanced plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These results suggest that human GDM and macrosomia are associated with downregulation of antioxidant status, and macrosomic infants also exhibit altered lipid metabolism.

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Available from: Oussama Grissa, Dec 30, 2013
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    • "Finally, we chose to further our previously reported findings of altered ex vivo aortic vascular responsiveness and endothelial dysfunction in offspring of hyperglycemic mothers and explore potential mechanisms contributing to our previous observations. Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with increased markers of oxidative injury in the offspring 19,20. Thus, the isolated vessels studies focused on the contribution of reactive oxygen species to ex vivo aortic vascular dysfunction. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The intrauterine environment strongly influences adult disease susceptibility. We utilized a rat model of third trimester maternal diabetes to test the hypothesis that adult offspring exposed to hyperglycemia in utero display increased blood pressure and alterations in vascular responsiveness. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection to pregnant rats on gestation day 13 (term 21 day) and partially controlled with insulin injections. Hemodynamic function was evaluated in 6–12 month old offspring. Results Male but not female offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) had significantly increased blood pressure compared to controls, heart rate was similar. For both sexes, heart rate baroreflex responses were similar as were in vivo hemodynamic responses to angiotensin II, NOS inhibition and ganglionic blockade. Aortic contractility to angiotensin II was similar in both groups. NOS inhibition and the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate but not the SOD-mimetic Tempol significantly increased contractile responses to angiotensin II in controls but not ODM. NADPH stimulated superoxide production was greater in male ODM than controls (p<0.05). Conclusions Exposure to hyperglycemia in utero results in sex specific cardiovascular changes in adult offspring. Impaired NO - reactive oxygen species signaling may play a significant role in the hemodynamic phenotype of ODM.
    Pediatric Research 07/2012; 72(4):352-61. DOI:10.1038/pr.2012.93 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, Karacay et al (2010) demonstrated that plasma and serum maternal total antioxidant status (TAS) was decreased, while circulating levels of lipid peroxidation breakdown products (MDA) were increased between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation, thus showing that increased oxidative stress and reduction in antioxidant defense mechanisms may contribute to disease processes in GDM (Bertazzi et al 2001, Karacy et al 2010, Rustemeijer et al 2001). Carine et al (1993) and Zachara et al (1993) found no differences in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels between pregnant women at third trimester and non-pregnant women, but recent studies have demonstrated an association between GDM and impaired SOD activities and enhanced circulating lipid metabolite levels such as MDA (Grissa et al 2007). Catalase, the main regulator of hydrogen peroxide metabolism is involved in Glut 4 expression, insulin secretion, insulin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase regulation, and glucose transport stimulation (Goth et al 2005, Mueller et al 1997). "
    Gestational Diabetes, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-581-5
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    • "Additionally, highly significant associations between macrosomia and low levels of ORAC, vitamin E, SOD and CAT were observed in this study. The results showing no alteration in vitamin A levels in macrosomia are in agreement with observations previously reported [41]. Furthermore, the decreased circulating levels of albumin in macrosomic newborns may also reflect the alteration of antioxidant defenses during obesity and excessive weight. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR<1, p>0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 11/2011; 17(11):CR650-656. DOI:10.12659/MSM.882051 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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