Microbial biosensors

Division of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Centre of Biotechnology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637722, Singapore.
Analytica chimica acta (Impact Factor: 4.51). 06/2006; 568(1-2):200-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2005.11.065
Source: PubMed


A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed.

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Available from: Yu Lei, Mar 12, 2014
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    • "Most commonly applied techniques with this kind of biosensors are the electrochemical methods (amperometry, potentiometry, conductometry , voltammetry), fluorescence, bioluminescence and colorimetry. A disadvantageous aspect of microbial biosensors is low specificity towards analytes due to the presence of more biocatalysts on the biosensor surface (D'Souza, 2001; Lei et al., 2006; Park et al., 2013; Reshetilov, 2005; Su et al., 2011; Švitel et al., 2006; Tkac et al., 2009). However, because of the high stability of these enzymes within the cells, this aspect is useful in the area of biofuel cells preparation (generating current from a complex waste materials ) (Kalathil et al., 2013; Logan, 2009; Logan et al., 2006; Lovley, 2006; Wang & Ren, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Gluconobacter oxydans bacteria exhibit a unique metabolism for quick and incomplete oxidation of a wide range of different compounds (aldoses, ketoses, mono- and poly-alcohols, etc.). Such biotransformation efficiency with simple biomass production led to the industrial applications of these bacteria in the production of several important commodities. Their respiratory activity can also be successfully studied and used in the field of bioelectrochemistry. The main aim of this review is to present various strategies to improve selectivity of assays using intact/treated cells of G. oxydans, to introduce the application of G. oxydans-based biosensors in selective monitoring of analytes during biotransformation processes and to provide information about utilizable sugars in fermentation media or in biological oxygen demand value determination. The final part of the review describes potential application of G. oxydans cells in the generation of electricity from complex fuels within microbial fuel cells by advanced direct electron transfer route between bacterial cells and electrodes.
    Chemical Papers- Slovak Academy of Sciences 01/2015; 69(1):27-41. DOI:10.1515/chempap-2015-0040 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Microbial cells have a prime position among other whole-cell catalysts simply because it is easier to handle them and to prepare highly concentrated suspensions (Tkáč et al., 2005). It is desirable that microbes within microbial fuel cells utilize a wide range of substrates/fuels , which makes them very flexible (Logan & Elimelech, 2012; Logan & Rabaey, 2012; Lovley, 2006; Mahadevan et al., 2011), while microbes applied for the development of microbial biosensors have to be sensitive towards only the analyte of interest in a particular sample (Lei et al., 2006; Su et al., 2011; Tkac et al., 2009). From various microbial cells applied for the biosensors preparation, especially cells of Gluconobacter sp. are well suited due to the unique organization of their respiratory chain with very high activity of the enzymes with the turnover rate of 5500 s −1 (i.e. for *Corresponding author, e-mail: "
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    ABSTRACT: Various types of carbon nanoparticles were directly mixed with microbial cells of Gluconobacter oxydans within a 3-D bionanocomposite in order to prepare a highly sensitive ethanol biosensor with a short response time. From all carbonaceous nanomaterials tested, single- or multi-walled carbon nanotubes provided the highest sensitivity of detection (117-121 μA cm−2 mM−1), but from a practical point of view, Ketjen black 300 and 600 provide very low detection limit (2-6 μM) and high sensitivity for the ethanol analysis (84-88 μA cm−2 mM−1) with a short response time (14-33 s). Moreover, the price of Ketjen black is a few orders of magnitude lower compared to that of carbon nanotubes. Finally, the study showed that the morphology of nanoparticles rather than their surface modification is the key element in achieving high sensitivity of ethanol detection.
    Chemical Papers 01/2015; 69(1):176-182. DOI:10.1515/chempap-2015-0012 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Until now, most of the AChE enzymes used for the detection of pesticides have been extracted from fish and insect heads [33], [34], requiring much preparation time, resulting in high costs for enzyme purification. However, the yeast-display technology has provided an alternative means for engineering a low-cost AChE enzyme with desirable activity and the developed cells can be immobilized by chemical methods or with physical methods for development of whole-cell biosensors [35]. Also, the yeast expression system is capable of folding and glycosylating heterologous eukaryotic proteins [36], [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) cell surface display system of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE) was constructed and its bioactivity was studied. The modified Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase gene (bmace) was fused with the anchor protein (AGα1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant strain harboring the fusion gene bmace-AGα1 was induced to display BmAChE on the P. pastoris cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays revealed that the BmAChE was successfully displayed on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115. The enzyme activity of the displayed BmAChE was detected by the Ellman method at 787.7 U/g (wet cell weight). In addition, bioactivity of the displayed BmAChE was verified by inhibition tests conducted with eserine, and with carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. The displayed BmAChE had an IC50 of 4.17×10(-8) M and was highly sensitive to eserine and five carbamate pesticides, as well as seven organophosphorus pesticides. Results suggest that the displayed BmAChE had good bioactivity.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70451. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070451 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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