Impaired flow-mediated dilation is associated with low pulmonary function and emphysema in ex-smokers: the Emphysema and Cancer Action Project (EMCAP) Study.
ABSTRACT Basic science research suggests a causal role for endothelial dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Clinical studies examining endothelial function are lacking, particularly early in the disease. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a physiologic measure of endothelial reactivity to endogenous nitric oxide.
We hypothesized that lower FMD among former smokers would be associated with lower post-bronchodilator FEV(1), higher percentage of emphysema using computed tomography (CT) and lower diffusing capacity.
We measured FMD, pulmonary function, and CT percentage of emphysema in a random sample of 107 cotinine-confirmed former smokers in the ongoing EMCAP study. FMD was defined as percentage change in the brachial artery diameter with reactive hyperemia. Generalized additive models were used to adjust for potential confounders and assess linearity.
Mean age of participants was 71 +/- 5 years, 46% were female, and pack-years averaged 48 +/- 26. Mean FMD was 3.8 +/- 3.1%; mean post-bronchodilator FEV(1), 2.3 +/- 0.8 L; and mean CT percentage of emphysema, 26 +/- 10%. A 1 SD decrease in FMD was associated with a 132-ml (95% confidence interval, 16-248 ml; P = 0.03) decrement in post-bronchodilator FEV(1) and a 2.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.5-4.7%; P = 0.02) increase in CT percentage of emphysema in fully adjusted models. These associations were linear across the spectrum from normality to disease, independent of smoking history, and also significant among participants without COPD. Associations with diffusing capacity were consistent but nonsignificant (P = 0.09). The FMD-FEV(1) association was entirely attributable to percentage of emphysema.
Impaired endothelial function, as measured by FMD, was associated with lower FEV(1) and higher CT percentage of emphysema in former smokers early in COPD.
European Respiratory Journal 11/2005; 26(4):720-35. · 5.89 Impact Factor
Article: Clinical correlates and heritability of flow-mediated dilation in the community: the Framingham Heart Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies in selected samples have linked impaired endothelial function with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The clinical correlates and heritability of endothelial function in the community have not been described. We examined a measure of endothelial function, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), expressed as both percent (FMD%) and actual dilation by ultrasound with the occlusion cuff below the elbow in 2883 Framingham Study participants (52.9% women; mean age, 61 years). A subset of 1096 participants performed a 6-minute walk test before FMD determination. Mean FMD% was 3.3+/-3.0% in women and 2.4+/-2.4% in men. In stepwise multivariable linear regression models, FMD% was inversely related to age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), lipid-lowering medication, and smoking, whereas it was positively related to female gender, heart rate, and prior walk test. The estimated heritability of FMD% was 0.14. FMD actual dilation findings were similar, except that female sex and BMI were not significantly associated. Increasing age, systolic blood pressure, BMI, and smoking were associated with lower FMD% in our community-based sample, whereas prior exercise and increasing heart rate were associated with higher FMD%. The estimated heritability of FMD was modest. Future research will permit more complete characterization of the genetic and environmental determinants of endothelial function and its prognostic value in the community.Circulation 03/2004; 109(5):613-9. · 14.74 Impact Factor