Article

Prevalence and correlates of substance use among high school students in South Africa and the United States

Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.23). 11/2007; 97(10):1859-64. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2006.086330
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We compared prevalence rates and correlates of substance use among high school students in South Africa and the United States.
We used weighted data from 2 nationally representative surveys of high school students. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and examined between-country differences in rates and correlates of substance use were examined.
Rates of past-month alcohol and marijuana use were lower among South African students than among US students, but rates of illicit hard drug use were higher. Correlates of use in the 2 countries differed. For example, female gender was protective against tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in South Africa, whereas in the United States it was protective only against marijuana use. Black race/ethnicity was associated with lower rates of past-month cigarette and alcohol use in both countries, but the protective effect for alcohol use was stronger in South Africa.
Crosscultural studies can elucidate common and culturally unique pathways to drug use. Our results can inform future research, policies, and behavioral interventions in South Africa.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Riyadh Omardien, Mar 28, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
135 Views
  • Source
    • "Not surprisingly, substance use increased significantly with each measurement time point from the beginning of the eighth grade to the beginning of the eleventh grade. By eleventh grade, 64% of males and 58% of females reported having drunk alcohol in the previous 4 weeks, which is a higher percentage than reported in previous research in South Africa (Flisher et al., 2006; Flisher, Parry, Evans, Muller, & Lombard, 2003; Reddy et al., 2007). The higher prevalence of alcohol use in our study is likely due to our focus on Mitchell's Plain, a low-resource, high-risk community in South Africa. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using seven waves of data, collected twice a year from the 8th through the 11th grades in a low-resource community in Cape Town, South Africa, we aimed to describe the developmental trends in three specific leisure experiences (leisure boredom, new leisure interests, and healthy leisure) and substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) behaviors and to investigate the ways in which changes in leisure experiences predict changes in substance use behaviors over time. Results indicated that adolescents' substance use increased significantly across adolescence, but that leisure experiences remained fairly stable over time. We also found that adolescent leisure experiences predicted baseline substance use and that changes in leisure experiences predicted changes in substance use behaviors over time, with leisure boredom emerging as the most consistent and strongest predictor of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Implications for interventions that target time use and leisure experiences are discussed.
    International Journal of Behavioral Development 07/2011; 35(4):343-351. DOI:10.1177/0165025411404494 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal substances in the world. Its use has been reported to be over-represented in many psychiatric conditions and has frequently been found to predate the onset of psychiatric symptoms. However, cannabis may also have detrimental effects on the general population. Factors that predict the onset of use are receiving increased attention to aid in identifying groups of young people who may be more prone to consume cannabis. Personality traits may be one such factor as they are readily identifiable and offer information that can be used for improved targeting of educational material about the effects of cannabis use. This review summarizes the role that personality traits may play in cannabis use, with a focus on impulsivity and schizotypy, both of which have been extensively studied for their contribution in this setting. Additionally, other traits and the potential overlap between personality traits are highlighted. The wider implications of a better understanding of personality traits and cannabis use for cannabis research are also discussed.
  • Source
Show more