Elevated serum levels of interferon- gamma -inducible protein-10 in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV.
ABSTRACT Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with an accelerated course of HCV infection and a faster progression to severe liver disease. We have investigated whether the development of liver disease in coinfected patients is associated with specific chemokine and cytokine production. Four cohorts--HCV/HIV-coinfected patients, HCV-monoinfected patients, HIV-monoinfected patients, and healthy control subjects--were studied. Serum levels of the 10-kDa interferon- gamma -inducible protein (IP-10) were higher in all 3 groups of infected patients than in control subjects (P<.0001). HCV/HIV-coinfected patients had significantly higher IP-10 levels than monoinfected patients. In HCV-monoinfected patients, liver fibrosis scores and liver enzyme levels were positively correlated with IP-10 levels. Elevated IP-10 levels are associated with and may contribute to liver damage in both HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-coinfected patients.
Article: The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1 enhances hepatitis C virus replication through interferon gamma-inducible protein-10.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with faster progression of liver disease and an increase in HCV persistence. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 accelerates the progression of HCV liver disease remains unknown. HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). HCV RNA levels were higher in PBMCs of patients with HIV-1/HCV co-infection than in patients with HCV mono-infection. HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activated HCV replication in a time-dependent manner, and HIV-1 Tat induced IP-10 production. In addition, the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication was blocked by anti-IP-10 monoclonal antibody, demonstrating that the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication depends on IP-10. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 Tat protein activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of IP-10 mRNA and replication of HCV RNA. Furthermore, both HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activate HCV replication. HIV-1 Tat activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. These results expand our understanding of HIV-1 in HCV replication and the mechanism involved in the regulation of HCV replication mediated by HIV-1 during co-infection.BMC Immunology 04/2012; 13:15. · 2.53 Impact Factor
Article: A plasma biomarker signature of immune activation in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression in HIV infection. Combinatorial plasma biomarker signatures that represent surrogate markers of immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have not been defined. Here, we identify a plasma inflammatory biomarker signature that distinguishes between both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART and healthy controls and examine relationships of this signature to markers of disease progression. Multiplex profiling and ELISA were used to detect 15 cytokines/chemokines, soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R), and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in plasma from 57 HIV patients with CD4 nadir <300 cells/µl and 29 healthy controls. Supervised and unsupervised analyses were used to identify biomarkers explaining variance between groups defined by HIV status or drug abuse. Relationships between biomarkers and disease markers were examined by Spearman correlation. The majority (91%) of HIV subjects were on cART, with 38% having undetectable viral loads (VL). Hierarchical clustering identified a biomarker cluster in plasma consisting of two interferon-stimulated gene products (CXCL9 and CXCL10), T cell activation marker (sIL-2R), and monocyte activation marker (sCD14) that distinguished both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART from controls (p<0.0001) and were top-ranked in variables important in projection plots. IL-12 and CCL4 were also elevated in viremic and aviremic patients compared to controls (p<0.05). IL-12 correlated with IFNα, IFNγ, CXCL9, and sIL-2R (p<0.05). CXCL10 correlated positively with plasma VL and percentage of CD16+ monocytes, and inversely with CD4 count (p = 0.001, <0.0001, and 0.04, respectively). A plasma inflammatory biomarker signature consisting of CXCL9, CXCL10, sIL-2R, and sCD14 may be useful as a surrogate marker to monitor immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART during disease progression and therapeutic responses.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e30881. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An estimated one-third of individuals positive for HIV are also infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic infection with HCV can lead to serious liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver-related disease is among the leading causes of death in patients with HIV, and individuals with HIV and HCV co-infection are found to progress more rapidly to serious liver disease than mono-infected individuals. The mechanism by which HIV affects HCV infection in the absence of immunosuppression by HIV is currently unknown. In a recent article published in BMC Immunology, Qu et al. demonstrated that HIV tat is capable of inducing IP-10 expression. Further, they were able to show that HIV tat, when added to cells, was able to enhance the replication of HCV. Importantly, the increase in HCV replication by tat was found to be dependent on IP-10. This work has important implications for understanding the effect HIV has on the outcome of HCV infection in co-infected individuals. The findings of Qu et al. may inform the design of intervention and treatment strategies for co-infected individuals.Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2172/13/15.BMC Medicine 04/2012; 10:32. · 6.03 Impact Factor