Inflammation and inflammatory agents activate protein kinase C epsilon translocation and excite guinea-pig submucosal neurons.
ABSTRACT Properties of enteric neurons are transformed by inflammation and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are involved both in long-term changes in enteric neurons, and in transducing the effects of substances released during inflammation. We investigated roles of PKCepsilon in submucosal neurons by studying translocation in response to inflammatory mediators, effects on neuron excitability, and the changes in PKCepsilon distribution in a trinitrobenzene sulphonate model of ileitis.
Immunohistochemical detection and analysis of association with membrane and cytosolic fractions, and Western blot analysis of cytosolic and particulate fractions were used to quantify translocation. Electrophysiology methods were used to measure effects on neuron excitability.
All submucosal neurons were immunoreactive for the novel PKC, PKCepsilon, and direct PKC activators, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate, and the PKCepsilon-specific activator, transactivator of transduction-Psiepsilon receptor for activated C kinase, all caused PKCepsilon translocation from cytoplasm to surfaces of the neurons. Electrophysiologic studies showed that the stimulant of novel PKCs, ingenol (1 micromol/L), increased excitability of all neurons. Stimulation of protease-activated receptors caused PKCepsilon translocation selectively in vasoactive intestinal peptide secretomotor neurons, whereas a neurokinin 3 tachykinin receptor agonist caused translocation in neuropeptide Y and calretinin neurons. In all cases translocation was reduced significantly by a PKCepsilon-specific translocation inhibitor peptide. Increased PKCepsilon at the plasma membrane occurred in all neurons 6-7 days after an inflammatory stimulus.
Major targets for PKCepsilon include ion channels near the plasma membrane. PKCepsilon is likely to have a significant role in controlling the excitability of submucosal neurons and is probably an intermediate in causing hyperexcitability after inflammation.
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