Inflammation and inflammatory agents activate protein kinase C epsilon translocation and excite guinea-pig submucosal neurons.
ABSTRACT Properties of enteric neurons are transformed by inflammation and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are involved both in long-term changes in enteric neurons, and in transducing the effects of substances released during inflammation. We investigated roles of PKCepsilon in submucosal neurons by studying translocation in response to inflammatory mediators, effects on neuron excitability, and the changes in PKCepsilon distribution in a trinitrobenzene sulphonate model of ileitis.
Immunohistochemical detection and analysis of association with membrane and cytosolic fractions, and Western blot analysis of cytosolic and particulate fractions were used to quantify translocation. Electrophysiology methods were used to measure effects on neuron excitability.
All submucosal neurons were immunoreactive for the novel PKC, PKCepsilon, and direct PKC activators, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate, and the PKCepsilon-specific activator, transactivator of transduction-Psiepsilon receptor for activated C kinase, all caused PKCepsilon translocation from cytoplasm to surfaces of the neurons. Electrophysiologic studies showed that the stimulant of novel PKCs, ingenol (1 micromol/L), increased excitability of all neurons. Stimulation of protease-activated receptors caused PKCepsilon translocation selectively in vasoactive intestinal peptide secretomotor neurons, whereas a neurokinin 3 tachykinin receptor agonist caused translocation in neuropeptide Y and calretinin neurons. In all cases translocation was reduced significantly by a PKCepsilon-specific translocation inhibitor peptide. Increased PKCepsilon at the plasma membrane occurred in all neurons 6-7 days after an inflammatory stimulus.
Major targets for PKCepsilon include ion channels near the plasma membrane. PKCepsilon is likely to have a significant role in controlling the excitability of submucosal neurons and is probably an intermediate in causing hyperexcitability after inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: IL-13 is a Th2 cytokine that promotes alternative activation (M2 polarization) in primary human monocytes. Our studies have characterized the functional IL-13 receptor complex and the downstream signaling events in response to IL-13 stimulation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. In this report, we present evidence that IL-13 induces the activation of a Src family tyrosine kinase, which is required for IL-13 induction of M2 gene expression, including 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO). Our data show that Src kinase activity regulates IL-13-induced p38 MAPK tyrosine phosphorylation via the upstream kinases MKK3 or MKK6. Our findings also reveal that the IL-13 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase Jak2 is required for the activation of both Src kinase as well as p38 MAPK. Further, we found that Src tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is required for Stat1 and Stat3 serine 727 phosphorylation in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages. Additional studies identify Hck as the specific Src family member, stimulated by IL-13 and involved in regulating both p38 MAPK activation and p38 MAPK-mediated 15-LO expression. Finally we show that the Hck regulates the expression of other alternative state (M2)-specific genes (Mannose receptor, MAO-A, and CD36) and therefore conclude that Hck acts as a key regulator controlling gene expression in alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(42):36709-23. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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