Inflammation and inflammatory agents activate protein kinase C epsilon translocation and excite guinea-pig submucosal neurons.
ABSTRACT Properties of enteric neurons are transformed by inflammation and protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are involved both in long-term changes in enteric neurons, and in transducing the effects of substances released during inflammation. We investigated roles of PKCepsilon in submucosal neurons by studying translocation in response to inflammatory mediators, effects on neuron excitability, and the changes in PKCepsilon distribution in a trinitrobenzene sulphonate model of ileitis.
Immunohistochemical detection and analysis of association with membrane and cytosolic fractions, and Western blot analysis of cytosolic and particulate fractions were used to quantify translocation. Electrophysiology methods were used to measure effects on neuron excitability.
All submucosal neurons were immunoreactive for the novel PKC, PKCepsilon, and direct PKC activators, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, ingenol 3,20-dibenzoate, and the PKCepsilon-specific activator, transactivator of transduction-Psiepsilon receptor for activated C kinase, all caused PKCepsilon translocation from cytoplasm to surfaces of the neurons. Electrophysiologic studies showed that the stimulant of novel PKCs, ingenol (1 micromol/L), increased excitability of all neurons. Stimulation of protease-activated receptors caused PKCepsilon translocation selectively in vasoactive intestinal peptide secretomotor neurons, whereas a neurokinin 3 tachykinin receptor agonist caused translocation in neuropeptide Y and calretinin neurons. In all cases translocation was reduced significantly by a PKCepsilon-specific translocation inhibitor peptide. Increased PKCepsilon at the plasma membrane occurred in all neurons 6-7 days after an inflammatory stimulus.
Major targets for PKCepsilon include ion channels near the plasma membrane. PKCepsilon is likely to have a significant role in controlling the excitability of submucosal neurons and is probably an intermediate in causing hyperexcitability after inflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide signalling at the plasma membrane is terminated by neuropeptide degradation by cell-surface peptidases, and by β-arrestin-dependent receptor desensitization and endocytosis. However, receptors continue to signal from endosomes by β-arrestin-dependent processes, and endosomal sorting mediates recycling and resensitization of plasma membrane signalling. The mechanisms that control signalling and trafficking of receptors in endosomes are poorly defined. We report a major role for endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) in controlling substance P (SP) and the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK(1)R) in endosomes of myenteric neurones. ECE-1 mRNA and protein were expressed by myenteric neurones of rat and mouse intestine. SP (10 nM, 10 min) induced interaction of NK(1)R and β-arrestin at the plasma membrane, and the SP-NK(1)R-β-arrestin signalosome complex trafficked by a dynamin-mediated mechanism to ECE-1-containing early endosomes, where ECE-1 can degrade SP. After 120 min, NK(1)R recycled from endosomes to the plasma membrane. ECE-1 inhibitors (SM-19712, PD-069185) and the vacuolar H(+)ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A(1), which prevent endosomal SP degradation, suppressed NK(1)R recycling by >50%. Preincubation of neurones with SP (10 nM, 5 min) desensitized Ca(2+) transients to a second SP challenge after 10 min, and SP signals resensitized after 60 min. SM-19712 inhibited NK(1)R resensitization by >90%. ECE-1 inhibitors also caused sustained SP-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases, consistent with stabilization of the SP-NK(1)R-β-arrestin signalosome. By degrading SP and destabilizing endosomal signalosomes, ECE-1 has a dual role in controlling endocytic signalling and trafficking of the NK(1)R: promoting resensitization of G protein-mediated plasma membrane signalling, and terminating β-arrestin-mediated endosomal signalling.The Journal of Physiology 09/2011; 589(Pt 21):5213-30. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare quantified terminal ileal (TI) motility during MR enterography (MRE) with histopathological severity of acute inflammation in Crohn's disease. A total of 28 Crohn's patients underwent MRE and endoscopic TI biopsy. Axial and coronal TrueFISP, HASTE and post-gadolinium VIBE images were supplemented by multiple coronal TrueFISP cine motility sequences through the small bowel volume. TI motility index (MI) was quantified using validated software; an acute inflammation score (eAIS; 0-6) was assigned to the biopsy. Two observers qualitatively scored mural thickness, T2 signal, contrast enhancement and perimural oedema (0-3) to produce an activity score (aMRIs) based on anatomical MRI. The association among the MI, eAIS and aMRIs was tested using Spearman's rank correlation. Wilcoxon rank sum test compared motility in subjects with and without histopathological inflammation. Mean MI and mean eAIS were 0.27 (range 0.06-0.55) and 1.5 (range 0-5), respectively. There was a significant difference in MI between non-inflamed (mean 0.37, range 0.13-0.55) and inflamed (mean 0.19, range 0.06-0.44) TI, P = 0.002, and a significant negative correlation between MI and both eAIS (Rho = -0.52, P = 0.005) and aMRIs (R = -0.7, P < 0.001). Quantified TI motility negatively correlates with histopathological measures of disease activity and existing anatomical MRI activity biomarkers. • Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to assess Crohn's disease. • MRI measurements can provide a quantitative assessment of small bowel motility. • MR enterography can grade Crohn's disease. • Small bowel motility can be used as a marker of inflammatory activity.European Radiology 06/2012; 22(11):2494-501. · 4.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The enteric nervous system (ENS) referred to as the 'second brain' comprises a vast number of neurons that form an elegant network throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Neuropeptides produced by the ENS play a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory processes via cross talk with the enteric immune system. In addition, neuropeptides have paracrine effects on epithelial secretion, thus regulating epithelial barrier functions and thereby susceptibility to inflammation. Ultimately the inflammatory response damages the enteric neurons themselves resulting in deregulations in circuitry and gut motility. In this review, we have emphasized the concept of neurogenic inflammation, and the interaction between the enteric immune system and enteric nervous system focusing on neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The alterations in the expression of NPY and VIP in inflammation and their significant roles in immuno modulation are discussed. We highlight the mechanism of action of these neuropeptides on immune cells, focusing on the key receptors as well as the intracellular signaling pathways that are activated to regulate the release of cytokines. In addition, we also examine the direct and indirect mechanisms of neuropeptide-regulation of epithelial tight junctions and permeability, which is a crucial determinant of susceptibility to inflammation. Finally, we also discuss the potential of emerging neuropeptide-based therapies that utilize peptide agonists, antagonists, siRNA, oligonucleotides and lentiviral vectors.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 03/2013; · 3.65 Impact Factor