Revival of apoptotic cells that display early-stage dynamic membrane blebbing.
ABSTRACT The critical point at which apoptosis becomes irreversible and how cells attain an anti-apoptotic state remain unknown. Here, we report that apoptotic cells undergoing early-stage dynamic membrane blebbing revive. We examined this phenomenon in cell lines that stably express 2DED2DD, a modified FADD produced by fusing the tandem death effector domains (DEDs) and tandem death domains (DDs). Induction of apoptosis caused rapid blebbing. Eight hours later, most cells shrunk while some detached from the flask. Twenty-four hours later, when activated caspase 3 decreased, more than half the cells revived and appeared normal, probably due to the induction of unidentified anti-apoptotic proteins.
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ABSTRACT: Using the cytoplasmic domain of Fas in the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel interacting protein, FADD, which binds Fas and Fas-FD5, a mutant of Fas possessing enhanced killing activity, but not the functionally inactive mutants Fas-LPR and Fas-FD8. FADD contains a death domain homologous to the death domains of Fas and TNFR-1. A point mutation in FADD, analogous to the lpr mutation of Fas, abolishes its ability to bind Fas, suggesting a death domain to death domain interaction. Overexpression of FADD in MCF7 and BJAB cells induces apoptosis, which, like Fas-induced apoptosis, is blocked by CrmA, a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme. These findings suggest that FADD may play an important role in the proximal signal transduction of Fas.Cell 06/1995; 81(4):505-12. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Fas cell surface receptor belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and can initiate apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Using the Fas cytoplasmic domain as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated a mouse cDNA encoding a 205-amino-acid protein. Its predicted protein sequence shows 68% identity and 80% similarity with the sequence of recently described human Mort/FADD. This protein, most likely the mouse homolog of human FADD, associates with Fas in vivo only upon the induction of cell death. A fraction of this protein is highly phosphorylated at serine/threonine residues, with both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms being capable of binding to FAS. Stable expression of a truncated form of the Mort/FADD protein protects cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis by interfering with the wild-type protein-Fas interaction. Thus, mouse Mort/FADD is an essential downstream component that mediates Fas-induced apoptosis.Molecular and Cellular Biology 07/1996; 16(6):2756-63. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The widely expressed protein Fas is a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family which can trigger apoptosis. However, Fas surface expression does not necessarily render cells susceptible to Fas ligand-induced death signals, indicating that inhibitors of the apoptosis-signalling pathway must exist. Here we report the characterization of an inhibitor of apoptosis, designated FLIP (for FLICE-inhibitory protein), which is predominantly expressed in muscle and lymphoid tissues. The short form, FLIPs, contains two death effector domains and is structurally related to the viral FLIP inhibitors of apoptosis, whereas the long form, FLIP(L), contains in addition a caspase-like domain in which the active-centre cysteine residue is substituted by a tyrosine residue. FLIPs and FLIP(L) interact with the adaptor protein FADD and the protease FLICE, and potently inhibit apoptosis induced by all known human death receptors. FLIP(L) is expressed during the early stage of T-cell activation, but disappears when T cells become susceptible to Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis. High levels of FLIP(L) protein are also detectable in melanoma cell lines and malignant melanoma tumours. Thus FLIP may be implicated in tissue homeostasis as an important regulator of apoptosis.Nature 08/1997; 388(6638):190-5. · 38.60 Impact Factor