Independent Vascular and Cognitive Risk Factors for Postoperative Delirium
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States The American journal of medicine
(Impact Factor: 5).
10/2007; 120(9):807-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.02.026
Delirium is a common, morbid, and costly syndrome that occurs frequently after surgery for atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that vascular risk factors and mildly impaired cognitive performance would independently predispose nondemented patients to develop delirium after noncardiac surgery.
The International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction recruited patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 8 countries. Subjects provided detailed medical history and underwent preoperative testing of multiple cognitive domains with a neuropsychologic battery. Postoperatively, subjects (n=1161) were assessed daily for delirium.
Ninety-nine subjects (8%) developed delirium. In bivariable analysis, several vascular risk factors were significantly associated with the likelihood of delirium, including male sex, exposure to tobacco, previous myocardial infarction, and vascular surgery. After adjustment for age, tobacco exposure and vascular surgery were independent vascular risk factors for delirium (adjusted relative risk [RR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-4.9). In addition, mildly impaired cognitive performance, defined as performance 1.5 standard deviation below the mean on either of 2 neuropsychologic tests, was independently associated with delirium (adjusted RR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.4-3.6). Subjects with both vascular risk factors and mildly impaired cognitive performance were at double the risk of delirium (RR 2.2, 95% CI, 1.2-4.2) compared with those with either of these risk factors alone.
Vascular risk and mildly impaired cognitive performance independently predispose patients to delirium after noncardiac surgery. These factors will help to identify high-risk patients for delirium and to design and target future intervention strategies.
Available from: Johannes Hessler
- "In some studies, current smoking was found to increase the risk of delirium in the hospital    , yet others found no effect    . "
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between smoking in the older population and the risk of inpatient delirium, which is common and has adverse consequences.
Participants (N=3754) were insurants aged ≥55years of the largest German statutory health insurance company, who enrolled in a 6-year prospective population-based study. Baseline smoking, adjusted for age, sex, depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and alcohol consumption, was analyzed as risk factor of inpatient delirium. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Three-hundred seventy-three (10.0%) participants were smokers at baseline, 865 (23.0%) were quitters and 2516 (67.0%) were lifelong abstainers. Mean pack-years of smokers and quitters were 23.8 (S.D.=22.4). Sixty-one (1.6%) received a diagnosis of inpatient delirium. Smokers had an increased risk of delirium compared to abstainers in the fully adjusted model (HR=2.87, 95% CI 1.24-6.66). Quitters and abstainers did not differ (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.37-1.72). Comparing smokers and quitters, current smoking status (HR=3.22, 95% CI 1.20-8.62) but not pack-years [residual χ(2)(1)=0.25, P=.874] were associated with inpatient delirium.
Only current smoking but not being a quitter and the lifetime amount smoked were associated with inpatient delirium, indicating that acute nicotine withdrawal may represent a relevant pathogenic mechanism.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
General hospital psychiatry 03/2015; 37(4). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2015.03.009 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To begin, we must agree on what we mean by a learning system and a learning control system. A system is called learning if the information pertaining to the unknown features of a process or its environment is acquired by the system, and the obtained experience is used for future estimation, recognition, classification, decision or control such that the performance of the system will be improved. A learning system is called a learning control system if the acquired information is used to control a process with unknown features (these standardized definitions are taken from Reference 1). The attribute of "learning" that is associated with learning systems, derives from psychological learning theories, especially reinforcement learning theories.
Decision and Control including the 13th Symposium on Adaptive Processes, 1974 IEEE Conference on; 01/1974
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