Transcriptional profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated in response to high-salinity, cold and drought
ABSTRACT Cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has a narrow genetic base making it difficult for breeders to produce new elite cultivars with durable resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. As an alternative to genome mapping, microarrays have recently been applied in crop species to identify and assess the function of putative genes thought to be involved in plant abiotic stress and defence responses. In the present study, a cDNA microarray approach was taken in order to determine if the transcription of genes, from a set of previously identified putative stress-responsive genes from chickpea and its close relative Lathyrus sativus, were altered in chickpea by the three abiotic stresses; drought, cold and high-salinity. For this, chickpea genotypes known to be tolerant and susceptible to each abiotic stress were challenged and gene expression in the leaf, root and/or flower tissues was studied. The transcripts that were differentially expressed among stressed and unstressed plants in response to the particular stress were analysed in the context of tolerant/susceptible genotypes.
The transcriptional change of more than two fold was observed for 109, 210 and 386 genes after drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, respectively. Among these, two, 15 and 30 genes were consensually differentially expressed (DE) between tolerant and susceptible genotypes studied for drought, cold and high-salinity, respectively. The genes that were DE in tolerant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses code for various functional and regulatory proteins. Significant differences in stress responses were observed within and between tolerant and susceptible genotypes highlighting the multiple gene control and complexity of abiotic stress response mechanism in chickpea.
The annotation of these genes suggests that they may have a role in abiotic stress response and are potential candidates for tolerance/susceptibility.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Rebecca Ford, Jan 08, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Terminal drought is one of the major constraints in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), causing more than 50% production losses. With the objective of accelerating genetic understanding and crop improvement through genomics-assisted breeding, a draft genome sequence has been assembled for the CDC Frontier variety. In this context, 544.73 Mb of sequence data were assembled, capturing of 73.8% of the genome in scaffolds. In addition, large-scale genomic resources including several thousand simple sequence repeats and several million single nucleotide polymorphisms, high-density diversity array technology (15 360 clones) and Illumina GoldenGate assay genotyping platforms, high-density genetic maps and transcriptome assemblies have been developed. In parallel, by using linkage mapping approach, one genomic region harbouring quantitative trait loci for several drought tolerance traits has been identified and successfully introgressed in three leading chickpea varieties (e.g. JG 11, Chefe, KAK 2) by using a marker-assisted backcrossing approach. A multilocation evaluation of these marker-assisted backcrossing lines provided several lines with 10–24% higher yield than the respective recurrent parents.Modern breeding approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection and genomic selection are being deployed for enhancing drought tolerance in chickpea. Some novel mapping populations such as multiparent advanced generation intercross and nested association mapping populations are also being developed for trait mapping at higher resolution, as well as for enhancing the genetic base of chickpea. Such advances in genomics and genomics-assisted breeding will accelerate precision and efficiency in breeding for stress tolerance in chickpea. Additional keywords: backcrossing, Cicer arietinum, genome sequence, quantitative trait loci, yield.Functional Plant Biology 07/2014; 41(11):2-6. DOI:10.1071/FP13318 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A hypothesis that nitrogen (N) nutrition moderates the sensitivity of plants to salinity (S) was tested in a greenhouse experiment by exposing the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to four salinity levels (control, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 dS m−1) and three forms of N, i.e., nitrate (NO3), ammonium (NH4), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), and a control. The pot experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) using three replications. The interaction between S × N demonstrated that salinity had significantly reduced plant growth, root length, water use efficiency, branches plant−1, grain yield plant−1 by increasing the root: shoot ratio irrespective of N form as compared to the control. Reduction in general, due to the form of N, was less in plants fed with NH4NO3 as compared with sole sources of N or control. Combined application of N had less reduction of absolute growth rate, water use efficiency, grain yield plant−1 at higher salinity level. The difference amongst N forms on the braches plant−1 was negligible, while root: shoot ratio was less affected in plots treated with NH4 form of N. These results suggested that combined use of N forms can minimize the reduction in plant growth probably by better control over the excessive accumulation of sodium, calcium, potash, sulfate, and chloride, which normally occur with applications of N as solely NO3 or NH4.Journal of Plant Nutrition 06/2013; 36:1373–1382. DOI:10.1080/01904167.2013.792837 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this work, the response of the halophytic shrub Prosopis strombulifera to lowering an osmotic potential ( o) to -1.0, -1.9, and -2.6 MPa generated by NaCl, Na2SO4, and the iso-osmotic combination of them was studied at 6, 12, and 24 h after reaching such values in the growing media. By analyzing the content of abscisic acid (ABA) and related metabolites and transpiration rates, we observed that ABA content varied depending on type of salt, salt concentration, organ analyzed, and age of a plant. ABA content in leaves was much higher than in roots, presumably because of rapid biosynthesis and transport from roots. Leaves of Na2SO4-treated plants had the highest ABA content at o -2.6 MPa (24 h) associated with sulfate toxicity symptoms. Significant content of ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) was found in both the roots and leaves, whereas only low content of phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA). The roots showed high ABA-GE accumulation in all treatments. The highest content of free ABA was correlated with ABA-GE glucosidase activity. The results show that ABA-GE and free ABA work together to create a specific stress signal.Biologia Plantarum 03/2013; 58(1). DOI:10.1007/s10535-013-0365-6. · 1.74 Impact Factor