A guide to viral inclusions, membrane rearrangements, factories, and viroplasm produced during virus replication.
ABSTRACT Virus replication can cause extensive rearrangement of host cell cytoskeletal and membrane compartments leading to the "cytopathic effect" that has been the hallmark of virus infection in tissue culture for many years. Recent studies are beginning to redefine these signs of viral infection in terms of specific effects of viruses on cellular processes. In this chapter, these concepts have been illustrated by describing the replication sites produced by many different viruses. In many cases, the cellular rearrangements caused during virus infection lead to the construction of sophisticated platforms in the cell that concentrate replicase proteins, virus genomes, and host proteins required for replication, and thereby increase the efficiency of replication. Interestingly, these same structures, called virus factories, virus inclusions, or virosomes, can recruit host components that are associated with cellular defences against infection and cell stress. It is possible that cellular defence pathways can be subverted by viruses to generate sites of replication. The recruitment of cellular membranes and cytoskeleton to generate virus replication sites can also benefit viruses in other ways. Disruption of cellular membranes can, for example, slow the transport of immunomodulatory proteins to the surface of infected cells and protect against innate and acquired immune responses, and rearrangements to cytoskeleton can facilitate virus release.
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ABSTRACT: Assembly of dsDNA bacteriophage is a precisely programmed process. Potential roles of host cell components in phage assembly haven't been well understood. It was previously reported that two unidentified proteins were present in bacteriophage Sf6 virion (Casjens et al, 2004, J.Mol.Biol. 339, 379-394, Fig. 2A). Using tandem mass spectrometry, we have identified the two proteins as outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OmpA and OmpC from its host Shigella flexneri. The transmission electron cryo-microscopy structure of Sf6 shows significant density at specific sites at the phage capsid inner surface. This density fit well with the characteristic beta-barrel domains of OMPs, thus may be due to the two host proteins. Locations of this density suggest a role in Sf6 morphogenesis reminiscent of phage-encoded cementing proteins. These data indicate a new, OMP-related phage:host linkage, adding to previous knowledge that some lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contain OmpC-like genes that express phage-encoded porins in the lysogenic state.Virology 11/2010; 409(2):319-27. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Crohn disease (CD) is a chronic and debilitating inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Prevalence in Western populations is 100-150/100,000 and somewhat higher in Ashkenazi Jews. Peak incidence is in early adult life, although any age can be affected and a majority of affected individuals progress to relapsing and chronic disease. Medical treatments rely significantly on empirical corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppression, and intestinal resectional surgery is frequently required. Thus, 80% of patients with CD come to surgery for refractory disease or complications. It is hoped that an improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, for example by studying the genetic basis of CD and other forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), will lead to improved therapies and possibly preventative strategies in individuals identified as being at risk.Autophagy 04/2011; 7(4):355-74. · 12.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a recently described member of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae. The roles of the proteins encoded by the SRBSDV genome have rarely been studied. In a yeast two-hybrid (YTH) assay in which SRBSDV P6, a putatively multifunctional protein, was used as bait and an SRBSDV cDNA library was used as prey, there was a strong interaction between the P6 and P5-1 proteins. The interaction was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complement (BiFC) assay in plant cells. YTH analysis using truncated mutants showed that the N-terminal region (amino acids 9-231) of P5-1 is necessary for binding P5-1 to P6 and that the N-terminal fragment (amino acids 1-93) of P6 is necessary for its interaction with P5-1. SRBSDV P5-1 formed granules positioned at the cell periphery in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves; P6 was present in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus and formed punctate bodies associated with the cell periphery. Immunogold labeling showed that both P6 and P5-1 localized within viroplasms in infected cells of rice plants. These results suggest that the interaction between P5-1 and P6 of SRBSDV may be involved in the formation of viroplasms.Archives of Virology 03/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor