Protective properties and surface localization of Plasmodium falciparum enolase.

Department of Biological Sciences, TIFR, Homi Babha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005, India.
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.07). 12/2007; 75(11):5500-8. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00551-07
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The enolase protein of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum has recently been characterized. Apart from its glycolytic function, enolase has also been shown to possess antigenic properties and to be present on the cell wall of certain invasive organisms, such as Candida albicans. In order to assess whether enolase of P. falciparum is also antigenic, sera from residents of a region of Eastern India where malaria is endemic were tested against the recombinant P. falciparum enolase (r-Pfen) protein. About 96% of immune adult sera samples reacted with r-Pfen over and above the seronegative controls. Rabbit anti-r-Pfen antibodies inhibited the growth of in vitro cultures of P. falciparum. Mice immunized with r-Pfen showed protection against a challenge with the 17XL lethal strain of the mouse malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii. The antibodies raised against r-Pfen were specific for Plasmodium and did not react to the host tissues. Immunofluorescence as well as electron microscopic examinations revealed localization of the enolase protein on the merozoite cell surface. These observations establish malaria enolase to be a potential protective antigen.

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    ABSTRACT: Enolase is the eighth enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, a reaction that generates ATP from phosphoenol pyruvate in cytosolic compartments. Enolase is essential, especially for organisms devoid of the Krebs cycle that depend solely on glycolysis for energy. Interestingly, enolase appears to serve a separate function in some organisms, in that it is also exported to the cell surface via a poorly understood mechanism. In these organisms, surface enolase assists in the invasion of their host cells by binding plasminogen, an abundant plasma protease precursor. Binding is mediated by the interaction between a lysine motif of enolase with Kringle domains of plasminogen. The bound plasminogen is then cleaved by specific proteases to generate active plasmin. Plasmin is a potent serine protease that is thought to function in the degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding the targeted host cell, thereby facilitating pathogen invasion. Recent work revealed that the malaria parasite Plasmodium also expresses surface enolase, and that this feature may be essential for completion of its life cycle. The therapeutic potential of targeting surface enolases of pathogens is discussed.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2011; 106 Suppl 1:85-90. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Mycoplasma synoviae is an avian pathogen that can lead to respiratory tract infections and arthritis in chickens and turkeys, resulting in serious economic losses to the poultry industry. Enolase reportedly plays important roles in several bacterial pathogens, but its role in M. synoviae has not been established. Therefore, in this study, the enolase encoding gene (eno) of M. synoviae was amplified from strain WVU1853 and expressed in E. coli BL21 cells. Then the enzymatic activity, immunogenicity and binding activity with chicken plasminogen (Plg) and human fibronectin (Fn) was evaluated.ResultsWe demonstrated that the recombinant M. synoviae enolase protein (rMsEno) can catalyze the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the Km and Vmax values of rMsEno were 1.1¿×¿10¿3 M and 0.739 ¿mol/L/min, respectively. Western blot and immuno-electron microscopy analyses confirmed that enolase was distributed on the surface and within the cytoplasm of M. synoviae cells. The binding assays demonstrated that rMsEno was able to bind to chicken Plg and human Fn proteins. A complement-dependent mycoplasmacidal assay demonstrated that rabbit anti¿rMsEno serum had distinct mycoplasmacidal efficacy in the presence of complement, which also confirmed that enolase was distributed on the surface of M. synoviae. An inhibition assay showed that the adherence of M. synoviae to DF-1 cells pre-treated with Plg could be effectively inhibited by treatment with rabbit anti-rMsEno serum.Conclusion These results reveal that M. synoviae enolase has good catalytic activity for conversion of 2-PGA to PEP, and binding activity with chicken Plg and human Fn. Rabbit anti¿rMsEno serum displayed an obvious complement-dependent mycoplasmacidal effect and adherent inhibition effect. These results suggested that the M. synoviae enolase plays an important role in M. synoviae metabolism, and could potentially impact M. synoviae infection and immunity.
    BMC Veterinary Research 09/2014; 10(1):223. · 1.86 Impact Factor

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