Longitudinal predictors of changes to illicit drug use among young Australian women
ABSTRACT Much information regarding predictors of illicit drug initiation and cessation is drawn from cross-sectional data. This paper aims to determine the longitudinal changes in factors associated with initiation and cessation of illicit drugs by young Australian women over a 3-year period.
The sample was the cohort of young women moving from their mid- to late 20s, completing the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) survey in 2000 and 2003, who were either 'new' users or 'quitters' at the 2003 survey.
Crude and multivariate associations between changes in predictor variables and the probability of illicit drug initiation or cessation were evaluated. Variables significant in univariate analyses were used to create multivariable logistic regression models which predicted initiation and cessation of illicit drugs.
All categories of smokers, except ex-smokers and those who adopted and quit smoking between surveys, were less likely to cease the use of illicit drugs. Women who became pregnant were more likely to cease illicit drug use. Women who continued to drink at levels described as long-/short-term risk and women who suffered continuing emotional abuse were less likely to cease use of illicit drugs.
Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with illicit drug initiation are best conducted in a cohort aged in their late teens to early 20s. Following the current cohort into their late 30s may further explain predictors of illicit drug cessation.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Significance: Research demonstrates that children and adolescents exposed to maternal addiction experience a variety of problems, including cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral difficulties, poor adaptation in young adulthood, and adult substance abuse. Objective/Purpose: We examined the factors associated with illicit drug abuse and dependence among a nationally representative sample of women with children less than 18 years in the household. Methods: Data were from the 2002 and 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N=19,300). Covariates included socio-demographics, self-rated health status, health insurance coverage, severe mental illness (SMI), severe stress in the past year, and interpersonal violence. Weighted chi-square and multiple logistic regression were utilized. Results: Most respondents were between 18 and 49 years and had one or two children. The overall prevalence of illicit drug abuse or dependence was 3.1%. Compared to mothers without drug abuse or dependence, substance abusing mothers were significantly more likely to be unmarried, controlling for race, income, and employment status. They also were more likely to report poorer health status, meet the criteria for SMI, and have a public source of health insurance. Mothers who were older, had a high school degree, and reported no severe stress in the past year were significantly less likely to abuse illicit drugs. Discussion/Conclusions: Single mothers and mothers with SMI, poor perceived health, severe stress, and a public source of health insurance are at increased risk for illicit drug abuse. Prevention and intervention programs should target these populations to reduce youth exposure to maternal addiction.135st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2007; 11/2007
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ABSTRACT: Given research that shows youth exposed to maternal addiction have increased rates of cognitive, socioemotional, and behavioral problems, we examined the prevalence and correlates of past year illicit drug abuse or dependence among women with children younger than 18 years of age in the home to identify maternal risk factors. Data were from the 2002 and 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian population. The current analysis utilized a subsample of women (N=19,300) who reported having children younger than 18 years in the home. Past year abuse or dependence on cocaine, heroin, marijuana, stimulants, and hallucinogens as well as nonmedical use of prescription medications were assessed. The prevalence of illicit drug abuse or dependence was 1.9%. Mothers reporting drug abuse or dependence had increased odds of being unmarried, controlling for other demographics. They also were more likely to report stress, poorer health status, and meet the criteria for serious mental illness (SMI). Prevention and intervention strategies should focus on developing and testing methods to screen for both risk factors associated with maternal drug abuse and actual substance abuse in primary and emergency care settings to reduce youth exposure and improve child developmental outcomes.Annals of epidemiology 04/2009; 19(3):187-93. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.12.007