Deletion of a small consensus region at 6q15, including the MAP3K7 gene, is significantly associated with high-grade prostate cancers
ABSTRACT Chromosome 6q14-21 is commonly deleted in prostate cancers, occurring in approximately 22% of all tumors and approximately 40% of metastatic tumors. However, candidate prostate tumor suppressor genes in this region have not been identified, in part due to the large and broad nature of the deleted region implicated in previous studies.
We first used high-resolution Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism arrays to examine DNA from malignant and matched nonmalignant cells from 55 prostate cancer patients. We identified a small consensus region on 6q14-21 and evaluated the deletion status within the region among additional 40 tumors and normal pairs using quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. We finally tested the association between the deletion and Gleason score using the Fisher's exact test.
Tumors with small, interstitial deletions at 6q14-21 defined an 817-kb consensus region that is affected in 20 of 21 tumors. The MAP3K7 gene is one of five genes located in this region. In total, MAP3K7 was deleted in 32% of 95 tumors. Importantly, deletion of MAP3K7 was highly associated with higher-grade disease, occurring in 61% of tumors with Gleason score >or=8 compared with only 22% of tumors with Gleason score <or=7. The difference was highly significant (P = 0.001).
Our study provides strong evidence for the first time that a small deletion at 6q15, including the MAP3K7 gene and four other genes, is associated with high-grade prostate cancers. Although the deletion may be a marker for high-grade prostate cancer, additional studies are needed to understand its molecular mechanisms.
SourceAvailable from: Gregory A Hawkins
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ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma continues to rise, and once the disease metastasizes it is almost inevitably fatal. We recently reported that a large miRNAs cluster on human chromosome 14q32, implicated in many types of cancers, is significantly down-regulated in melanoma. miR-377, one of the miRNAs located within this cluster, was studied here. Methods qRT-pCR was used to quantify miR-377 levels in melanoma cell lines and samples. Melanoma cell lines ectopically expressing miR-377 were generated by stable transfection, mRNA expression was assessed using mRNA arrays and protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis. Potential targets of miR-377 were identified through luciferase reporter assays. Cellular proliferation, migration and soft-agar colony formation were monitored in control and miR-377-expressing cells using cell biology techniques. Results miR-377 is expressed in normal melanocytes but not in melanoma cell lines or samples. Its ectopic stable expression in melanoma cell lines decreased their proliferative and migratory capacity and their colony-forming capability. mRNA arrays of melanoma cells over-expressing miR-377 pointed to several down-regulated mRNAs that have putative binding sites for miR-377 in their 3′UTR, of which both E2F3 and MAP3K7 were found to be direct targets of miR-377. E2F3, a potent transcriptional inducer of cell-cycle progression, was found to be elevated in melanoma cell lines, but decreased following ectopic expression of miR-377. Ectopic miR-377 also led to a decrease in the activity of a reporter plasmid containing three E2F DNA-binding sites linked to a luciferase cDNA sequence, demonstrating that miR-377 down-regulates E2F3-induced transcription. MAP3K7 (known as TAK1), a serine/threonine kinase along the MAPK signaling pathway, was over-expressed in melanoma but decreased following ectopic expression of miR-377. MAP3K7 is involved in the activation of NF-κB. MiR-377 over-expression led to decreased activity of a reporter plasmid containing two NF-κB DNA-binding sites and to decreased output along the NF-kB signaling pathway. Conclusion Our results suggest that miR-377 is an important negative regulator of E2F and MAP3K7/NF-kB signaling pathway in melanoma cells; it is tempting to speculate that its silencing in melanoma promotes the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of the cells through activation of these pathways. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12943-015-0338-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Molecular Cancer 03/2015; 14. DOI:10.1186/s12943-015-0338-9 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer co-opts a unique set of cellular pathways in its initiation and progression. The heterogeneity of prostate cancers is evident at earlier stages, and has led to rigorous efforts to stratify the localized prostate cancers, so that progression to advanced stages could be predicted based upon salient features of the early disease. The deregulated androgen receptor signaling is undeniably most important in the progression of the majority of prostate tumors. It is perhaps because of the primacy of the androgen receptor governed transcriptional program in prostate epithelium cells that once this program is corrupted, the consequences of the ensuing changes in activity are pleotropic and could contribute to malignancy in multiple ways. Following localized surgical and radiation therapies, 20-40% of patients will relapse and progress, and will be treated with androgen deprivation therapies. The successful development of the new agents that inhibit androgen signaling has changed the progression free survival in hormone resistant disease, but this has not changed the almost ubiquitous development of truly resistant phenotypes in advanced prostate cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular pathways involved in localized and metastatic prostate cancer, with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the new knowledge.Oncotarget 09/2014; 5(17):7217-59. · 6.63 Impact Factor