Analysis of the interactions of cytochrome b5 with flavocytochrome P450 BM3 and its domains.
ABSTRACT Interactions between a soluble form of microsomal cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) from Musca domestica (housefly) and Bacillus megaterium flavocytochrome P450 BM3 and its component reductase (CPR), heme (P450) and FAD/NADPH-binding (FAD) domains were analyzed by a combination of steady-state and stopped-flow kinetics methods, and optical spectroscopy techniques. The high affinity binding of b(5) to P450 BM3 induced a low-spin to high-spin transition in the P450 heme iron (K(d) for b(5) binding = 0.44 microM and 0.72 microM for the heme domain and intact flavocytochrome, respectively). The b(5) had modest inhibitory effects on steady-state turnover of P450 BM3 with fatty acids, and the ferrous-carbon monoxy P450 complex was substantially stabilized on binding b(5). Single turnover reduction of b(5) by BM3 using stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy (k(lim) = 116 s(-1)) was substantially faster than steady-state reduction of b(5) by P450 BM3 (or its CPR and FAD domains), indicating rate-limiting step(s) other than BM3 flavin-to-b(5) heme electron transfer in the steady-state reaction. Steady-state b(5) reduction by P450 BM3 was considerably accelerated at high ionic strength. Pre-reduction of P450 BM3 by NADPH decreased the k(lim) for b(5) reduction approximately 10-fold, and also resulted in a lag phase in steady-state b(5) reduction that was likely due to BM3 conformational perturbations sensitive to the reduction state of the flavocytochrome. Ferrous b(5) could not reduce the ferric P450 BM3 heme domain under anaerobic conditions, consistent with heme iron reduction potentials of the two proteins. However, rapid oxidation of both hemoproteins occurred on aeration of the ferrous protein mixture (and despite the much slower autoxidation rate of b(5) in isolation), consistent with electron transfer occurring from b(5) to the oxyferrous P450 BM3 in the complex. The results demonstrate that strong interactions occur between a eukaryotic b(5) and a model prokaryotic P450. Binding of b(5) perturbs BM3 heme iron spin-state equilibrium, as is seen in many physiologically relevant b(5) interactions with eukaryotic P450s. These results are consistent with the conservation of structure of P450s (particularly at the heme proximal face) between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and may point to as yet undiscovered roles for b(5)-like proteins in the control of activities of certain prokaryotic P450s.
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ABSTRACT: P450(BM3) (CYP102A1), a fatty acid hydroxylase from Bacillus megaterium, has been extensively studied over a period of almost forty years. The enzyme has been redesigned to catalyse the oxidation of non-natural substrates as diverse as pharmaceuticals, terpenes and gaseous alkanes using a variety of engineering strategies. Crystal structures have provided a basis for several of the catalytic effects brought about by mutagenesis, while changes to reduction potentials, inter-domain electron transfer rates and catalytic parameters have yielded functional insights. Areas of active research interest include drug metabolite production, the development of process-scale techniques, unravelling general mechanistic aspects of P450 chemistry, methane oxidation, and improving selectivity control to allow the synthesis of fine chemicals. This review draws together the disparate research themes and places them in a historical context with the aim of creating a resource that can be used as a gateway to the field.Chemical Society Reviews 02/2012; 41(3):1218-60. · 24.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2B4 is a microsomal protein with a multi-step reaction cycle similar to that observed in the majority of other cytochromes P450. The cytochrome P450 2B4-substrate complex is reduced from the ferric to the ferrous form by cytochrome P450 reductase. After binding oxygen, the oxyferrous protein accepts a second electron which is provided by either cytochrome P450 reductase or cytochrome b(5). In both instances, product formation occurs. When the second electron is donated by cytochrome b(5), catalysis (product formation) is ∼10- to 100-fold faster than in the presence of cytochrome P450 reductase. This allows less time for side product formation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) and improves by ∼15% the coupling of NADPH consumption to product formation. Cytochrome b(5) has also been shown to compete with cytochrome P450 reductase for a binding site on the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 2B4. These two different effects of cytochrome b(5) on cytochrome P450 2B4 reactivity can explain how cytochrome b(5) is able to stimulate, inhibit, or have no effect on cytochrome P450 2B4 activity. At low molar ratios (<1) of cytochrome b(5) to cytochrome P450 reductase, the more rapid catalysis results in enhanced substrate metabolism. In contrast, at high molar ratios (>1) of cytochrome b(5) to cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b(5) inhibits activity by binding to the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 and preventing the reductase from reducing ferric cytochrome P450 to the ferrous protein, thereby aborting the catalytic reaction cycle. When the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cytochrome b(5) are equal, it will appear to have no effect on the enzymatic activity. It is hypothesized that cytochrome b(5) stimulates catalysis by causing a conformational change in the active site, which allows the active oxidizing oxyferryl species of cytochrome P450 to be formed more rapidly than in the presence of reductase.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 11/2010; 507(1):144-53. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interactions of protein components of the xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 system, CYP6A1, P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5 from the house fly (Musca domestica) have been characterized. CYP6A1 activity is determined by the concentration of the CYP6A1–P450 reductase complex, regardless of which protein is present in excess. Both holo- and apo-b5 stimulated CYP6A1 heptachlor epoxidase and steroid hydroxylase activities and influenced the regioselectivity of testosterone hydroxylation. The conversion of CYP6A1 to its P420 form was decreased by the addition of apo-b5. The effects of cytochrome b5 may involve allosteric modification of the P450 enzyme that modify the conformation of the active site. The overall stoichiometry of the P450 reaction was substrate-dependent. High uncoupling of CYP6A1 was observed with generation of hydrogen peroxide, in excess over the concomitant testosterone hydroxylation or heptachlor epoxidation. Inclusion of cytochrome b5 in the reconstituted system improved efficiency of oxygen consumption and electron utilization from NADPH, or coupling of the P450 reaction. Depending on the reconstitution conditions, coupling efficiency varied from 8 to 25% for heptachlor epoxidation, and from 11 to 70% for testosterone hydroxylation. Because CYP6A1 is a P450 involved in insecticide resistance, this suggests that xenobiotic metabolism by constitutively overexpressed P450s may be linked to significant oxidative stress in the cell that may carry a fitness cost.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 01/2008;