Aldosterone-induced increases in superoxide production counters nitric oxide inhibition of epithelial Na channel activity in A6 distal nephron cells
ABSTRACT Oxygen radicals play an important role in signal transduction and have been shown to influence epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. We show that aldosterone, the principal hormone regulating renal ENaC activity, increases superoxide (O2*) production in A6 distal nephron cells. Aldosterone (50 nM to 1.5 microM) induced increases in dihydroethidium fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner in confluent A6 epithelial cells. Using single-channel measurements, we showed that sequestering endogenous O2* (with the O2* scavenger 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl) significantly decreased ENaC open probability from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 0.03 +/- 0.01. We also found that increasing endogenous O2* in A6 cells, by applying a superoxide dismutase inhibitor, prevented nitric oxide (NO) inhibition of ENaC activity. ENaC open probability values did not significantly change from control values (0.23 +/- 0.05) after superoxide dismutase and 1.5 microM NO coincubation (0.21 +/- 0.04). We report that xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine compounds increase local concentrations of O2* by approximately 30%; with this mix, an increase in ENaC number of channels times the open probability (from 0.1 to 0.3) can be achieved in a cell-attached patch. Our data also suggest that O2* alters NO activity in a cGMP-independent mechanism, since pretreating A6 cells with ODQ compound (a selective inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase) failed to block 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl inhibition of ENaC activity.
Article: Inhibition of ENaC by Endothelin-1.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) is a key player in the regulation of Na(+) homeostasis. Its functional activity is under continuous control by a variety of signaling molecules, including bioactive peptides of endothelin family. Since ENaC dysfunction is causative for disturbances in total body Na(+) levels associated with the abnormal regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, and lung fluid balance, uncovering the molecular mechanisms of inhibitory modulation or inappropriate activation of ENaC is crucial for the successful treatment of a variety of human diseases including hypertension. The precise regulation of ENaC is particularly important for normal Na(+) and fluid homeostasis in organs where endothelins are known to act: the kidneys, lung, and colon. Inhibition of ENaC by endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been established in renal cells, and several molecular mechanisms of inhibition of ENaC by ET-1 are proposed and will be reviewed in this chapter. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Vitamins & Hormones 01/2015; 98:155-87. DOI:10.1016/bs.vh.2015.01.001 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increase of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone is induced by a stimulated renin-angiotensin system in a subgroup of hypertensive patients. Epidemiological studies find higher cancer mortality in hypertensive patients and an increased risk to develop kidney cancer. This work investigated the involvement of oxidants in the genotoxicity of aldosterone and on a potential activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in kidney tubule cells. Aldosterone, at concentrations as low as 1 nM caused a significant increase of DNA damage, as assessed by comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. Aldosterone also led to a dose-dependent activation of NF-κB. Time courses of DNA damage and NF-κB-activation showed that these effects already occurred after 5 and 3 min of aldosterone exposure, respectively, suggesting non-genomic events of the hormone. Antioxidants prevented aldosterone-induced DNA damage and NF-κB-activation, indicating the involvement of oxidants. In fact, aldosterone caused an increase in intracellular oxidant levels, and in particular of superoxide anions. As a consequence, increased levels of the oxidized DNA modification 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine were observed in aldosterone-treated kidney cells. Aldosterone-induced DNA damage and NF-κB-activation was dependent on the involvement of the mineralocorticoid receptor. The induction of oxidant-mediated genotoxic effects, and of a long-term activation of the potentially oncogenic cell signal NF-κB by aldosterone could contribute to the increased kidney cancer incidence in hypertensive patients.Molecular Carcinogenesis 02/2011; 50(2):123-35. DOI:10.1002/mc.20710 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of ICU-related morbidity and mortality, primarily from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. One explanation is that alcohol regulates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) via oxidant signaling to promote a pro- injury environment. We used small rodent models to mimic acute and chronic alcohol consumption and tested the hypothesis that ethanol (EtOH) would affect lung fluid clearance by up-regulating ENaC activity in the lung. Fluorescence labeling of rat lung slices and in vivo mouse lung revealed an increase in ROS production in response to acute EtOH exposure. Using western blots and fluorescein-5-maleimide labeling, we conclude that EtOH exposure modifies cysteines of α-ENaC while data from single channel patch clamp analysis confirm that 0.16% EtOH increased ENaC activity in rat alveolar cells. In vivo lung fluid clearance demonstrated a latent increase in fluid clearance in mice receiving EtOH diet. Ethanol mice given a tracheal instillation of LPS demonstrated early lung fluid clearance compared to caloric control mice and C57Bl/6 mice. Standard biochemical techniques reveal that chronic EtOH consumption resulted in greater protein expression of the catalytic gp91(phox) subunit and the obligate Rac1 protein. Collectively these data suggest that chronic EtOH consumption may lead to altered regulation of ENaC, contributing to a 'pro-injury' environment in the alcohol lung.PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(1):e54750. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0054750 · 3.53 Impact Factor